Friday, October 6, 2017

Curriculum Changes And Development

curriculum changes and development BY ane12589 Curriculum Changes and Innovations BLUEPRINT This chapter describes how the curriculum for Basic Education evolved from 1973 to 2010. It describes the changes and innovations implemented as necessitated by the changing factors in our countrys political, social, economic, cultural and technological environments. The discussions include an analysis of the processes and outcomes in accordance with the prevailing national development agenda. It also presents some best practices and lessons learned. Curriculum is a potent tool for reform when it integrates and interrelates subjects nd disciplines in a manner that makes learning experiences meaningful" William Malloy, "Essential Schools and Inclusion: A Responsive Partnership" in The Educational Forum(1996) Anyone wanting to build must have a plan. Just as an architect always carries along him a blueprint of his house plan, so does a national leader every so often checks if the curriculum reflects the countrys national development aspirations.

The curriculum and its implementation in every classroom could be the main reasons for poor education quality. A host of related problems can be said to explain these ritical findings, but issues of competence and commitment of every teachers and school head in imparting the curriculum and in equally assuming the responsibility over the student''s outcomes become apparent.

This brings to the fore how crucial curriculum planning and development are as the vehicle for developing a national framework to achieve the objectives of attaining quality education as enshrined in the Philippines constitutions of 1973 and 1987. The goal of Education through the curriculum has always been to mold an ideal Filipino who is healthy, responsible, morally upright, capable of learning and relearning, conomically productive, hard-working, adaptable to local and international environment, and steadfast in his faith.

Translating these quality in operational term 1 . Preschool Education Grade K) Sense of God, self and other Starting to imbibe what is good from what is bad Basic etiquettes for dining, playing, hygiene and sharing Distinguish shapes, colours, letters and numbers Readiness for formal elementary education 2. Elementary Level (grades 1 to 6) Sense of God, self, family and community Identify good from bad Understands the virtues of giving and sharing Can think and communicates Proud as a Filipino and takes pride in what they do 3.

Secondary Level (Grades 7 to 12) Has moral integrity and willingness to engage in hard work Better appreciation of God and self as well as care and concern for others Can create and believe in own ability, including ways to inspire and motivate others Can participate in team effort and appreciates every team member''s contribution Appreciates music, culture and arts Can protect and conserve the environment Understands the need to develop further own capabilities and potentials and strive for excellence Understands the situation of the Philippines and commits to help for ts betterment DepEd has always endeavoured to produce a "Filipino learners who is empowered for lifelong learning, an active maker of meaning and can learn whatever he or she needs to know in any context. Such an empowered learner is competent in learning how to learn and has life skills so that he or she becomes a self- developed person who is makabayan (patriotic), makatao (Mindful of Humanities), maka-kalikasan (respectful of nature) and maka-Diyos (God-centered).

To attain this, curriculum design and implementation by DepEd should now consider the desired outcomes and ultimately develop responsible citizens, future eaders and professionals, most especially teachers. Curriculum planners and developers understand their ultimate responsibility to plant the seeds of knowledge and information in the minds and hearts of the next generation. While addressing the students'' differential learning abilities, they Isos aim to integrate urgent societal needs demands and issues such as differences in ethnicity, culuture, creed and language. Once the foundations are laid, curriculum developers and planners should introduce innovations that prepare the students for the future. BASES OF CURRICULUM PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE COUNTRY 1 . Preschool Education Readiness for formal education 2.

Elementary Education provide the knowledge and develop the skills, attitudes, and values essential for changing social milieu: Provide learning experiences that increase the child''s awareness of and responsiveness to the demands of society. Promote and intensify awareness of, identification with, and love for our nation and the community to which the learners belongs Promotes experiences that develop the learner''s orientation to the world of work and prepare the learners to engage in honest and gainful work. 3. Secondary Education Continue the general education started in the elementary; Prepares the learners for college; Prepare the learners for the world of work. 4. Non- formal Education Eradicate illiteracy and raise the level of functional literacy of the population Provide an alternative means of learning and certification for out-of-school youth and adults.

Develop among the learners the proper values, attitudes and knowledge to enable them to think critically and act creatively for personal, community and national These objectives must be satisfied by the countrys educational system via the curriculum; moreover, educational systems in the world have emphasized functional literacy. This is officially defined as the range of skills and competencies- cognitive, affective and behavioural PRESCHOOL CURRICULUM The critical years in a child''s life are from birth to six years of age. Then DECS Secretary Lourdes Quisumbing issued in 1989 DECS Order 107, which states: During these critical years, basic character, values, abilities, personality, skills, aptitude, attitudes and knowledge are formed. These qualities when properly developed shape the individual''s overall perspective and preparedness for life.

It has been confirmed by studies that the experiences and the learning that preschool children undergo uring the first six years of their life have a lasting effect on their intellectual development as well as on the development of their social and physical skills. Preschool programs serve a range of purposes. Recognizing this, the MEC- Bureau of Public Schools issued Memorandum 25, series of 1971 , encouraging the school divisions to establish public preschool classes, whenever possible. This policy was issued even before the passage of educational Act of 1982 and the promulgation of the first EFA Philippines Plan of Action 1991-2000 which identified Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD), covering ages 0-6 years, as one of its crucial omponents. As a general guide, DepEd has been prescribing policies to improve preschool education, from the time of Florencio Abad to Mona Valismo.

In 2005, President Arroyo mandated universal coverage of five-year-old children for preschool education and directed DepEd to develop the curriculum standards and framework, and to spearhead the training of teachers and day care center workers on these curriculum standards. been several proposed bills to institutionalized and make preschool part of the basic education ladder. The last of which (house Bill 5367) was passed in Congress which constituted a consolidation often proposals. One of the outstanding features of the said bill is the provision of free preschool education to all five-year-old children and making this compulsory on the third year of its implementation.

Basic Educational Curriculum Revised Elementary and Secondary Curriculum (1973) From 1965 to 1975, the revised Elementary Education Program aimed to develop the spiritual, moral and physical aspects of children by providing them with experiences in the democratic way of life and inculcating ideals and attitudes necessary for patriotic, upright and useful citizenship Under Marcos''s New Society, education underwent a dramatic transformation. The reform initiative was contained in the development plan towards the utilization of human potential to serve national purposes. The Education Department undertook a bold step in the overall restructuring of the curriculum in all levels guided by the following assumptions: 1 . If the students can see relationship between what they are being asked to learn in school and the world of occupations they will be motivated to learn more in school. 2.

No single learning strategy exists that is ideal for all learners. 3. Basic academic skills, a personally meaningful set of work values, and good work habits represent daptability tools needed by all who choose to work in todays emerging complex society. National Elementary School Curriculum (1983) The NESC covered the general education of the child- as a human person, as a citizen, and as a productive agent. It had a fewer learning areas to emphasize mastery learning. More time was allotted to the development of basic skill, specifically the 3Rs in the lower grades. There was greater emphasis on the development of a sense of humanity and nationhood in all learning areas.

NESC Time allotment (minutes per week) To improve the quality of secondary education and to respond to the findings of tudies on Philippine education, Bureau of Secondary Education developed the National Secondary Curriculum (NSEC). Values Education; Araling Panlipunan; Filipino; Science and Technology; English; Physical Education; Health and Music; Mathematics; and Technology and Home economics. Furthering Values Education in the NESC and NSEC (1986-1998) 1 . The objective of values education was to produce persons with a balanced well-being who will Join the countrys human resource. 2. At the tertiary level, universities and colleges followed suit through their social science subjects and courses while teacher ducation institutes adjusted their pre-service teacher education programs to meet this directive. Basic Education Curriculum (2000-2002) 1.

It was under President Arroyo that the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum was crafted based on the report of the Committee on Curriculum Reform under Br. Andrew Gonzales and continued by Raul Roco. 2. Moreover, the four Pillars of Education by UNESCO''s Jacques Delors (1996 : 22-24) also influenced the restructuring of the curriculum. The third and fourth pillars, learning to live together and learning to be, which emphasize the use of knowledge gained to improved one''s elf and one''s relationship with others, were perceived as very relevant and thus highlighted in the BEC. Structure of the BEC Filipino, English, Science, Mathematics and Makabayan.

Connect related subjects from the different learning areas; Increase the time allotted for science, english and mathematics; Create multifaceted basic education teachers; Reduce congestion of subjects offered in basic education Reduce the hiring of teachers if one is able to teach different learning areas (particularly in the elementary level); Improve the positive outlook towards work to ncrease productivity; Increase each individual''s ability to cope in a fast-changing world; Increase the importance of the arts, music, sports, dance and other aspects of Philippine culture; and Develop nationalism among the Filipinos and increase Sibika at Kultura (S&K) (1-111)/ Heograpiya, Kasaysayan, Sibika (HKS) (IV-VI) Musika, Sining at Edukasyong Pangkatawan (MSEP) integrated in Grade 1-111; separate subjects in Grade IV-VI Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) (IV-VI) Edukasyong Pagpapakatao (EP); separate subjects from Grade l- VI Secondary Level Araling Panlipunan Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) Musika, Sining at Edukasyong Pangkatawan at pangkalusugan Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum The 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum (SEC) was implemented in June 2010.

Prior to its implementation, DepEd undertook a monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the 2002 BEC involving case studies of 20 schools, coming from the following typologies of High Schools: general high schools funded fully by the national government; newly established high school funded Jointly by the national, provincial, and municipal government; science high schools; private high schools; technical-vocational high schools. Summarizing Commonalities of the Past and Current Curricula 1. Emphasis on Major Learning Areas: Science Mathematics Language 2. Socio-cultural Learning Areas: Citizenship Social Studies History (heritage) religion 3. Cross-cutting Areas Poverty Alleviation Equity/ Inclusive Education Gender mainstreaming Quality from the perspective of EFA Human Rights Other 4. Recognition and Growing Emphasis on New Learning Areas: ICT as a learning area and as a tool for learning Technical- Vocational Education Comprehensive Health Promotion and Care Education for Sustainable Development Climate Change Disaster preparedness Skills

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