Saturday, October 7, 2017

Genes And Environment

Genotype - Shared environment - intelligence (''Q) Unshared environment- mental illnesses (depression) Twin studies Family studies Adoption studies Genes and intelligence and evaluation of research Twin studies, strength and limitations Family studies, strength and limitations Adoption studies, strength and limitations.

Strengths: Same genotype for MZ twins Same age Minnesota twin study: longitudinal, large sample, cross-cultural, different age groups Brought up in different environments (for the most part) Limitations: Living together- influencing each other Treated more similar by others Sampling methods How different have the environments been No contact? Samples are more representative Environment = easier to measure/control Easier to find participants (cheaper) Shared- unshared environment How similar is the shared environment?

Not similar genes Adoptive families Families with both biological and adopted children give a lot of valuable data Socio-economic similarities between adoptive parents(middle class families) Representative sample size? Age of children when being adopted? Treated equally with biological children? biologically based mechanisms. Evolution- a change over time in the frequency with which particular genes- and the haracteristics they produce= occur within an inbreeding population. Mutation- Random events and accidents in gene reproduction during the division of cells. atural selection- characteristics that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction within a particular environment will be more likely to be preserving the population, more common in the species over time. Biologically based mechanisms- Ability to acquire any language spoken in the world (critical period) Newborns respond to faces A need to belong o a group- fear of social disapproval Altruistic and helpful behavior- especially to children & relatives Basic emotions

Males are more violent globally than females More likely to kill Mate preferences differ among males/females Different mating strategies in males/females Sex differences in the ideal mate Buss (1989) evolutionary explanation Hypothesis: across cultures, men will prefer to marry younger women (greater reproductive capacity) and value attractiveness more than women (a sign of health & fertility Procedure 50 scientists administered questionnaires to women and men from 37 cultures around the globe sample size- 10047 asked about ideal age for marriage and to rank a list of 13 qualities that a potential mate might have Results

Men wanted to marry younger females in all cultures Ideal age was 27. 5 and 25. 4 for wives Men valued physical attractiveness more than women and 36 out of 37 cultures, women considered it more important with males earning potential. Alternative Explanations: Eagly & wood (1999) Social structure model- POS page 93-94 Research question: Do cultural differences in gender roles & power differences influence peoples answers in Buss'' findings? Procedure Operationalization of gender differences in power—UN gender empowerment measure (degree of gender equality) Calculate the correlations between answers in Buss'' survey and results on UNGEM.

Hypotheses- Eagly & Wood 1 . Men place greater value than women on a mates having good domestic skills because this is consistent with culturally defined roles. 2. If economic & power potential and domestic skills, then these genders differences should be smaller in cultures being more equal. Results in cultures high in gender equality, men showed less of a preference for younger women, women less preference for older men, and the gender gap decreased in preference for a "good cook/housekeeper" and "good financial prospect" cultural gender equality differences did NOT influence the fact that men value physical attractiveness more than women.

Introduction Does it include all that it should Length? Command term- is it in there? Body Balanced? Accurate? Analysis? Conclusion -nature/nurture ''content - discussion/evaluation Does it flow naturally from what is written in the text? No new information? No personal opinions happy birthday ! (: hope it started great, don''t party too hard on the cruise tonight (; lots of love from Eskilstuna! what are the potential benefits of genetic screening how reliable are the screens how should people be informed about test results? The Brain & evolution You can trace the evolution on our brains Mcleen is the founder of this theory

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