Friday, October 13, 2017

Sports Day

Sports day BY Tayyab2509 Proposal Tittle: Use of waste water; opportunities and threats Problems: 0 Growing water scarcity threatens economic development, sustainable human livelihoods and environment quality. 0 Urban population growth, particularly in developing countries, places immense pressure on water and land resources. Wastewater is water that has been adversely affected in quality by any anthropogenic influence.

It includes liquid waste discharged from domestic houses, industrial, agricultural or commercial processes. 0 Driven by rapid urbanisation and growing wastewater volumes, wastewater is widely used as a low-cost alternative to onventional irrigation water. It supports livelihoods and generates considerable value in urban and pert-urban agriculture despite the health and environmental risks associated with this practice. It is estimated that up to one-tenth of the world''s population eats food produced from wastewater.

As populations continue to grow and more freshwater is diverted to cities for domestic use (70 per cent of which later returns as wastewater ) the use of wastewater is certain to increase, both in terms of the areas irrigated, and in the volumes applied. 0 Farmers who are irrigating their land with wastewater are found to have significantly higher revalence of hepatitis, vomiting, stomach ach, skin allergy, cholera, diarrhoea, typhoid and dysentery than those who are irrigating their land with canal or tube- well water because untreated wastewater contained high concentration of helminth eggs and faecal coli form bacteria.

The total area under wastewater irrigation is 2,139 ha (5283. 2 acreage) located in different sites of Faisalbad. The results indicate that in wastewater area land preparation cost is higher compared to freshwater irrigated area because land has become more compact and hard due to untreated wastewater use since long time. Solutions: The government can install the treatment plant and the cost of treatment plant can be recovered within couple of years by saving the cost of negative externalities that both consumers and producers are suffering from. The third option is that the government should pay the subsidy equal to labour loss (forgone labour earnings) and medical expenditures to inhabitants of that area. 0 The last and most practical option is, the cost of damages should be recovered from industrialists by imposing taxes equal to the cost of externalities or the govt. should force them to install the treatment plant before throwing water in the main stream.

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