Tuesday, October 10, 2017

Study Notes On Euthanasia

Euthanasia - Proxy Decisions Means beautiful death The termination of a beings life on compassionate grounds Candidates for euthanasia are terminally ill with death being imminent that face uncontrollable pain and suffering. Typical criteria for euthanasia What are the procedures? Are they morally equivalent? (deontological issue) If not, why not? Passive vs. Active Euthanasia 1. Cause of death 2. Manner of death 3. Procedure 4. Perceived moral status 5. Justification for perceived moral status Passive Euthanasia 1. Nature - underlying illness 2.

Omission to act - letting patient die from underlying illness 3. Refusal of treatment or ongoing treatment is withdrawn 4. Permissible 5. Respect patient autonomy Alleviate further suffering Not killing Active Euthanasia 1. Human activity 2. Commission "Killing" 3. Physician assisted suicide Physical administered ("Active euthanasia proper") 4. Not permissible 5. Injunction against killing people Injunction against physicians killing (violates aims medicine) Consequential reasons James Rachels Deontological issue - Is killing intrinsically worse than "letting" a person die?

He says NO. What determines moral status:- intentions and motives What matters is why, not how. Smith Smith has 6 year old cousin, if cousin dies he gets huge inheritance Drowns child Clearly kills Motives and intentions are malevolent Jones Goes to kill child Before he does anything the child slips, falls, and drowned Killing - taking a life Murder - unjust taking of a life Consequentially speaking: Active Euthanasia is actually preferable; more effective in bringing out the motive.

Criticism about a practice: allowing someone to die on rrelevant grounds in the most horrible possible way Down Syndrome: not operating based on blocked intestines. Using DS as an excuse to NOT operate Passive euthanasia can be done by withholding basic necessities ie: food Dave Cullahan Central argument: there are limitations to Says he will prove that killing is morally worse than letting die Does: argue that killing and letting die are different actions Specifically that letting a patient die is NOT killing Argues there is a causal difference between both Misuse of the word "killing": when Dr. kes patient off Life Support Morally speaking they are the same. Cullahan doe not say this, but it is implied Isolates the disease as the cause: The diseases takes the life Not clear. Not very strong. Attempts to refute Rachels argument Argument: Limits of autonomy, Active E is one of them Fires off 7 rhetorical questions (stating the obvious) Argues: limits when another person is involved "It is a fundamental moral wrong for one person to give over their life and fate to another person.

And no less wrong for the other to have that kind of total final ower" 0 asserts this because it''s the moral truth Duelling (consentual) and slavery were outlawed based on above point = because they were stupid Paternalism: restriction of autonomy for ones own good "father knows best" Duelling/slavery: healthy people; competitors have potential life; highly irrational behaviour Euthanasia: dying uncontrollable pain; patients are dying, reasonable to ask for assistance based on pain and suffering Dave Brock?? The cause of death goes back further No one would say "boy merely let grandma die by pulling the plug. Cause of Death? Efficient cause The last event in a causal series ''e: window broken by a baseball Impact of ball against a window boy throwing the ball at the window Total cause The entire causal series On Deontological case: Rachel''s makes a strong argument for showing there is no intrinsic moral difference between killing and letting die But there are consequential issues Arras explains is the BEST "you don''t know JACK" watch movie based on Euthanasia Euthanasia Rachels states that there is no intrinsic moral difference between killing and letting die.

Consequential Considerations: Brocks Positive: If euthanasia was allowed, people who want it can have it, allowing no legal restrictions on their freedom of choice, also allows the possibility for the people who do want it later on. Alleviation of pain. More humane to end life quickly and peacefully when that is what the patient wants rather than dragging out a painful death. Negative: If physician-assisted suicide were legal, patients would fear physicians (that they are possibly killing them).

The aim of medicine is to heal and help; therefore euthanasia would be against the fundamental principle of medicine. The assumption is that physical health is the priority of all. John Arras- "Slippery Slope" Arguments Premise 1) If we permit A (where A is an action, policy or practice) A will lead to B, and B to (where is some horrible consequence) Premise 2) should not be allowed Premise 1) Do not allow A In Arras'' arguments, is involuntary euthanasia (they cannot consent because they are incompetent).

Theoretical Argument: 1) We can''t limit candidates for PAS (physician-assisted suicide) based on criteria (patient is terminally ill, death is imminent, uncontrollable pain). If autonomy is aramount, it becomes difficult to understand the boundaries for the criteria, but Arras does not state why or how autonomy is paramount. "Right to die" is NOT the right to compel others to kill you. 2) Must allow PAS for incompetent patients. 3) It will lead to active E proper. Practical Argument: 3 Criteria for any policy of PAS: 1) Voluntariness (Internal Factors- guilt, pain, depression...

External Factors- subtle pressure from family/friends, coercion, cost of treatment, pressure from medical stafO All other options have been explored (since the physician is unable to provide dequate care, that patient is unwilling to explore other possible options) Reliable monitoring process (doctors will not report it for fear of the media) It should be noted that these concerns should also be applied to passive euthanasia, so why worry about active E when we don''t worry about passive E?

Presents the argument of bearing both passive and active E, or legalizing both, because they reflect the same concerns. October 17, 2013 Watched this in class. May Doctors Help you Die? Physician assisted suicide in Massachusetts video. http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=HSDqQCkPabA

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