Saturday, September 30, 2017

The Struggle Over The Saloon

The Struggle over the Saloon In 1881, the people of Worcester, MA debated whether to vote to "... sanction the sale of liquor under a licensing system" or to "... close all liquor dealers and saloons. " How one stood on this issue was often determined by their social class. For example, "... the temperance crusade was, in part, an effort made by the city''s middle and upper classes to reform, reshape, and restrict working-class recreational practices. " But nevertheless, this struggle never followed straight class lines.

A prime example of this would be in the immigrant Irish wage workers, where "Few Irish workers supported the no-license campaigns, but a substantial number did Join their own Catholic temperance organizations" Though, it was not prohibition that the social elites were working for, Saloon is the enemy we are fghting". " A large variety of people and social class were against the saloons also, including "Worcester''s manufacturers, ministers and mothers. This led to an even larger separation between those for saloons and those against it. Also, the temperance movements in this time period helped defend the culture and economic interests of Protestant manufacturers. But, "In Worcester, however, where trade unionism and radicalism were weak, temperance radicalism was also weak. " So, the saloon showed great strength while being threatened by the temperance movement, but it did create internal divisions in Worcester.

With estimates of up to 5-7% of the United States population admitting to being homosexual, the fght for marriage equality is as strong s ever. Marriage in the United States should be available to all, regardless of sexual orientation; not Just because of a moral responsibility of acceptance of others and their choices, but because under the Equal Protection clause of the 14th amendment, no state shall deny to any person within its Jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

With multiple amendments and clauses in the constitution which not only separate church and state but also give equal protection of the laws to all citizens, it s ludicrous that two citizens of the United States cannot enjoy the government benefits of getting married, such as receiving tax reductions, Just because they have a particular sexual orientation. With the concept of separation of church and state being present since the days of Thomas Jefferson , it is astounding that there are laws in place that restrict marriage between two individuals of the same gender: a mainly religious belief.

Since the United States is a liberal democracy, the overnment affirms that no one shall be granted or denied rights or privileges based on religious beliefs. Marriage, for that reason, cannot and should not have its definition based on a religious foundation. According to Held, "Since marriage does create a protected class of individuals who are granted special economic, health, and legal rights and benefits these cannot be distributed based on religiously determined ground. " Because marriage has historically been exclusively between a man and a woman, it is difficult to By scamskool

Nature Of Auditing And The Public Accounting Profession

Nature of Auditing and the Public Accounting Profession 1 . Auditing neither creates goods nor adds utility to existing goods and therefore does not add value to business. Auditing exists only because it has been legally mandated. Auditing exists because it is needed by the company. It is beneficial to users who need assurance if their financial statements reflect economic conditions that occurred in a period. Without reliable information, companies might make less effective decisions which are risky for the value of business.

It may neither create oods nor add utility to goods but it adds value to business because it is a source of information for a business'' decisions. 2. The failure of the public accounting profession to warn us of the problems that existed in the economy is an example of a profession not adding utility to society. Accounting records, classifies, and summarizes economic events to provide financial information for decision making. It does not study the problems in the economy but it helps management to make effective decisions despite economic problems. That way, accounting profession is an added utility to society. 3.

The only reason I would hire an auditor is with the expectation that the auditor search for and find any fraud that might exist within my company. Searching for fraud should be the primary focus of an audit. Fraud involves deception that can result to material misstatements of financial information and is not good for the users and a company''s future. But auditing does not only find frauds existing in a company but it also gives assurance to intended users whether financial statement are reliable, whether the operations are effective and efficient or whether the entity adheres to government laws and regulations.

These assurances are relevant to the decision makers of a company. 4. Auditors cannot legitimately serve the ''user'' public because they are effectively hired and fired by the management of the company being audited despite the technicality of the shareholder vote. If management does not like the opinion given by an auditor, it can simply recommend the engagement of another auditing firm that would be more amenable to the arguments made by management. from conflict of interest. It legitimately serves the user public when it gives unbiased opinion and information regarding a company''s financial statement that should help or decision making.

If management can find an auditing firm that will be amenable to their arguments, it would be a potential risk to their business. 5. The switch to the reconstituted ALJASB in setting audit standards will enhance the reputation of the profession because it must act in the public''s interest. The profession must act in the public''s interest but they should act in an unbiased way. Auditing will serve as a preventive measure that aids in keeping management honest and motivated. 6. Auditors cannot add significant value to financial statements as long as generally ccepted accounting principles allow such diversity in accounting principles.

How, for example, can the same auditor issue unmodified opinions on identical companies - yet one uses first in and the other weighted average to account for the same set of transactions - recognising that the reported income and balance sheets will be materially different? How can both be fairly presented? That is the very reason why there are generally accepted accounting principles. Without these principles that should be the criteria for auditing, evaluation and measurement of a subject matter on the basis of the practitioner''s own expectations, udgments and individual experience would not constitute suitable criteria. . Auditing is narrow - Just nitpicking and challenging the organisation in an attempt to find mistakes. I would rather pursue a career where I really understand a company''s business and would be in a position to make recommendation that would improve it. The scope of auditing compared to assurance and assertion-based engagements is really narrow. But if you would even Just consider the meaning of auditing you will find that to understand a company''s business, one must also understand its financial tatements.

And what can determine whether a company''s financial statements reflect the economic events occurred which is significant to a company''s improvement? That would be auditing. If users rely in inaccurate financial statements and as a consequence incurs financial loss, then there is no business improvement. 8. Auditing would add greater value if it analysed company performance and presented a report on company performance along with that audited financial report. There are classifications of audits. One is financial statement audits and another is operational audits. Financial statement audits focus on financial statements.

It reports the fairness of the financial information presented and the auditor would Operational audits, it involves report on efficiency and effectiveness of company''s operations. If a company then would want an analysis on both performance and financial report then they should engage with a financial statement auditor and another practitioner for operational audits. After receiving the reports, the part now of the management is to decide and act based on the audited information. 9. If auditors make recommendations to clients based on weaknesses in the company perations, the auditors ought to make those recommendations public.

This would help increase the public trust by providing more accountability by both management and auditors. Intended users of the assurance report include the public. Most of the time, audited financial statements are reported publicly for the sake of interested users. But because practitioners are only hired by companies, when engagements are designed for specific intended users or for a specific purpose, the practitioner considers including a restriction in the assurance report that limits its use to those users or that purpose. 0. Adding reports in the quality of internal control will enhance the value of the audit function to society.

If a company wants regular update of its internal control then they should hire an internal auditor. Internal audit is also a classification of audit which is a function established within an organization to examine and evaluate its activities as a service to the organization. Internal auditors report on efficiency and effectiveness of company''s operations as well as compliance to laws and regulations. 1 1 . The auditor''s report admits that transactions are evaluated only on a test'' basis; hus, the results embodied within an auditor''s report must be treated with a great deal of scepticism.

The auditor has done its Job of obtaining and evaluating evidences of the management''s assertions. The process was done with professional scepticism in the auditor''s part so there should be an assurance that information was not overlooked. Also, auditors use criteria such as the generally accepted accounting principles as standards in expressing an opinion on the assertions of management. The results embodied within and auditor''s report should then already be reliable and must not be treated with scepticism.

Personal Statement

Personal Statement Raina Perez 9/2/13 Period. 5 In my high school career I had attended a total of two high schools, both very different and both very important in helping me see the world the way that I do today. In my first high school, Freedom, I took advantage of the performing arts and had partake in a choir as well as beginning art class. Both of those classes helped me to hold myself at a higher standard and to showcase something I had been working on for others to see.

My choir class helped me to learn to work with larger groups and to ommunicate properly with my peers, whereas my art class had helped fuel and recognize I am more than a drowned student among a sea of people. I learned there is creativity and individuality in everything. In my second high school, Liberty, I had proceeded to take visual art type classes such as ceramics, ROP video, and even yoga. In taking ceramics I learned to work with a new substance and with my TOP video class I learned to get over my fear of being on camera.

For my yoga class I count this as an art, because the poses are very demanding on your body and it takes lots of practice. I also think it''s beautiful the way you can make your body both graceful and limber at one time; which is why I see yoga as an art. I believe by me taking multiple visual art classes I am even more ecstatic to be going into cosmetology school. I love that makeup, hair and fashion in general is always changing. I love that there''s always something new to learn, and new ways to do things.

I love that you must practice and that your work is actually being showcased by people who want your work. I think makeup is so versatile and can portray so many different emotions/feelings and even signify cultures. I think that me going through so many visual art classes has put me in a good spot for wanting to partake in a makeup career. Aside from my art classes I had also taken part in many different electives and school clubs.

The major electives I had taken that have helped in rich my knowledge and self being are Journalism, creative writing, gay straight alliance (club), and be the change (club). By me being in a Journalism elective it had pushed me out of my comfort zone and taught me a lot about communication, analyzing notes, and even being a better listener. For my creative writing class I learned many different styles of writing and had grasp many different views of Just about everything by hearing what my peers had to say on certain subjects.

I also learned that an imagination goes a long way. For the two clubs I had taken, they both taught me a great deal of equality and better information and helping others to become more open minded and less negative. In Be The Change I did a lot of volunteering and helped make the school, Freedom, a much better place to be. Although I learned a lot in clubs, extracurricular activites, and elective classes, I eally learned a lot in my world cultures class.

Despite I had taken this class freshman year it has open my eyes to so many different ways of living, people, ethnicities, and other worldly issues. That class had taught me a lot in being my own person and to be more ''awake'' and to realize there''s a lot more than Just California. My class had been driven by a not to great teacher, but I did find that there is a lot of beauty and fear within the world after taking that class, and ever since I''ve been extremely interestedinother cultures rather than Just my own ancient culture.

I have grown a love for the asian culture and a big goal/honor for me would be to travel Japan and to visit all of its temples. My true goal for the future is to greater my knowledge on the things that interest me and to find a compelling career that''ll keep me interested for years to come. I also hope I make it into a great college that''ll expand my horizons and help me to become a successful individual among society. I am a hard worker and am open to Manu different routes, so long as they lead me to a happier way of living.

How To Tame A Wild Tounge

English: The Dominant Language In the essay, "How to Tame a wild Tongue," Gloria Anzaldua the author, states the importance of maintaining one''s native tongue. She believes that people should speak whenever or however they please given that it does not harm anyone. Anzaldua does not want to escape her Mexican ways such as speaking Spanish. It is a vital part of her life because she communicates with her family members speaking a variety of Spanish dialects. Since she has no other way to show her Mexican ways, it is key that she speaks Spanish to maintain her Mexican pride.

People take pride in the languages that they speak and its not right for others to tell them they are not allowed to express themselves in those foreign languages. On the other hand, it is important that to speak English in order to communicate with her classmates, teachers, and anyone around her. English is fast becoming the dominant means by which the world is able to communicate. It is being referred to as the global language as it is seen as a common means for interaction between different countries.

This new phenomena can be seen in a positive light because the use of English as a ommon language brings efficiency and greater understanding. Nevertheless there some people who believe that this fact has changed and that now it is more important to learn Spanish and Mandarin than the English language. Anzaldua dealt with this issue on a consistent basis in her school life. Though she was not told to lose her Spanish ways, she felt that speaking English would not allow her to express herself. Especially in the American culture, it was necessary for her to learn English to communicate with her peers.

Furthermore, the English language is the number one lingua franca no other comes close. At the moment about 1. 113 million people speak Chinese as their mother tongue, whereas about 372 million speak English. Following this criterion Chinese must be the world''s global tongue; and yet analysts considered English to be the global language of the century. Imagine if China''s economy takes flight in the coming few years, enabling the country to replace the United States as the greatest economical power, there would be a possibility that China could take over in the next couple decades.

In fact, reports have shown that the number of Chinese learners is increasing dramatically. Chinese learners in Africa, for example, have increased to 8,000 in the year 2005. The Forum on China-Africa Cooperation published the statistic in a 2005 report. The report also says that "in Sudan alone, Chinese learners have amounted to 450, and many have come to China to learn on Chinese government scholarships, according to Peter Nyot Kok, Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research of Sudan. " According to the U. S. Bureau of the Census, ten years ago about one in seven people in this country spoke a language other than English at home.

Since then the proportion of immigrants in the Southwest are heavily Spanish speaking. Hispanic people make up 30 percent of the population of New York City, and a television station there that is affiliated with a Spanish-language network has been known to draw a larger daily audience than at least one of the city''s English-language network affiliates. According to the census, from 1980 to 1990 the number of Spanish-speakers in the United States grew by 50 percent. Statistically, more people in the world speak Mandarin than English, but Mandarin is not spoken much outside Asia. A global language is a language spoken internationally.

A global language is not only a majority people spoken, but also use in international organization or international event. It''s a well-known fact that there is huge demand for English speaking professionals in China who can facilitate international business. There is also acute demand for English teachers who can make the Chinese students better equipped for modern-day business and life. Chinese has more native speakers, however, it also has simplistic grammar, and it lacks articles, prepositions, verb conjugation and tense, singularity and plurality of nouns making it less effective than English at expressing complex meanings.

It is also tonal, which limits the speaker''s use of tone for emotional and conceptual expression. Furthermore most Westerners find the Chinese writing system difficult to grasp. So from emerging trends, it seems evident that Chinese is not more popular than English as a global language. English is widespread largely due to the fact that it is used so heavily in television, film and music. Hollywood''s global spread has contributed strongly to the international popularity of English. It is also the predominant language on the Internet. Web pages in other languages often tend to ave an English translation.

The British Empire and the dominant nature of American popular culture have contributed overall to the spread of English across the planet. Because of this many young Hispanics have favored adopting the English language into their culture. In South East Asia, as a result of English becoming a kind of global currency, there is a large turn towards acquiring language skills not in any language but most specifically in English. As the world becomes more "globalized" or as corners of the planet open up for trade relations with other countries and tourism ooms, the need for English increases.

Hotels, shops and schools have a desperate desire to sell their services and make a living. People''s ability to survive is strongly linked to their ability to communicate in English. Consequently native languages become redundant and even endangered. People focus on learning English over learning other languages and also in many cases need to use their individual languages to a lesser degree. In fact more Asians speak English than anyone else. One of them is that it facilitates the exchange of information from one part of the world the other with ease.

It is through the existence of a global language like English that peace and trade has been enhanced between dissimilar countries. It has also facilitated the mobility of people both in their physical terms and also electronically. Sufficient statistics indicate that most trade is done electronically and this is greatly facilitated by English as a global language. Finally, there are economic advantages connected with a global language. Crystal claims that the "more a community is linguistically mixed; the less it can rely on individuals to ensure communication between different groups" (Crystal 2003:11). ending large sums of money on translations and interpretations in order to reach its citizens. A global language known and spoken by everybody would undoubtedly lower these costs, and the spared money could be used in other important areas instead, for example in humanitarian aid. In fact, during the last decades the need of interpretation and translation in international organizations has progressively has been decreasing thanks to the expansion of English. Many international organizations find it necessary that all people involved speak English, since the translation expenses would be too high.

According to Crystal "half the budget of an international organization could easily get swallowed up in translation costs if there was a lack of a common language" (Crystal 2003: 12). Mutual intelligibility, great career opportunities and reduced administrative costs are some of the advantages a global language would give. We are in need of an international language for communication, politics, trade and security, but at the same time we are worried about language death, the advantages native speakers will have and all the disadvantages non-native speakers will face. English is growing, it is strong language, and its future seems bright.

My opinion is that if there will ever be an official international language English is the best option. It is a strong, well- developed language with millions of speakers. Even if a global language might be important, different languages are of importance for their culture and for the development of their native speakers. Anzaldua wants to maintain her heritage by speaking her language constantly. She is in fear that speaking English will lead to the death of her heritage, but the integration of her heritage with English will only allow er to have communication with more people around her.

Languages make the world more interesting and more alive. Works Cited Alatais, J. , & Straehle, C. (1997). The universe of English: Imperialism, chauvinism, and paranoia. In L. Smith & M. Forman (Eds. ), World Englishes 2000 (pp. 1-20). Honolulu: University of Hawaii. Brutt-Griffer, J. (1998). Conceptual questions in English as a world language: Taking up an issue. World Englishes, 17(3), 381-392. Crismore, A. (1996). Attitudes toward English in Malaysia . World Englishes, 15(3), 319-335. Crystal, D. (1997). English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bond Market In India

BOND MARKET IN INDIA BY rv333 BONDS ARE INTEREST BEARING DEBT INSTUMENTS. In India Bonds are issued by Government of India, State Governments, and Corporate Sector. The different categories of Bond market in India are as follows: (a) Government and Agency Bond Market (b) Corporate Bond Market (c) Municipal Bond Market (d) Mortgage backed and collateral Debt Market (e) Funding Bond Market (A) Government and Agency Bond Market: A government Bond is a debt instrument issued by Government in the countrys own currency and is a tradable instrument with maturity period of one year or more.

These bonds acknowledge the government debt obligation towards the holder . The government bonds can carry a fixed or floating coupon rate, which is paid at a periodicity on the Face value of the bond. Most of the government bonds are fixed coupon. The Public Debt office (PDO) of the Reserve Bank of India acts as the registry/ depository of Government Bonds and deals with issue, interest payment and repayment of principal at maturity. Different type of Government Bonds: (a) Fixed Rate Bonds: For these type of Bonds, the coupon rate is fixed for the entire life of

Bond at a particular percentage of Face Value. (b) Floating Rate Bonds: For these type of Bonds, Coupon rate is not fixed. The coupon rate is variable and is reset at a pre- announced interval. Floating rate Bonds were first issued in September 1995 in India. (c) Zero Coupon Bonds: These types of Bonds are Bonds with no coupon payments. These Bonds are issued at a discount to the Face value. These Bonds were issued by Government of India in nineties and after that it has not issued these types of Bonds. (d) Capital Indexed Bonds: To protect the holders from the inflation, in this type of

Bonds the principal is linked to an accepted Index of inflation. In December 1997, a Capital Index Bonds, with the principal hedged against inflation with maturity of 5 years was issued. Salient features of Government Bonds: (A) No risk of default as the bonds carry sovereign guarantee. (B) As the investors can sell the Bonds in Secondary market the Bonds have sufficient Liquidity. (C) No Tax deducted at source. (D) The Bonds qualify as Statutory Liquidity Ratio investment unless otherwise stated. (E) To borrow funds in the Repo market these bonds can be used as collateral.

The Government Bond market in India has two Segments namely, Primary Market And Secondary Market. (A) Primary Market: The market consists of sellers and buyers. For Primary market the sellers are the issuers of the bonds i. e. Central and State Governments. Buyers in this market generally are Insurance companies, Commercial Banks, Primary dealers and Financial Institutions and retail investors Subject to the guidelines of RBI. (B) Secondary Market: The secondary market consists of Financial Dealers, Retail investors, Corporate Houses, and RBI.

RBI conducts Auctions to issue Govt. Bonds. NDS-Auction platform is the electronic platform on which the auctions are conducted. The members of electronic platform are Insurance Companies, Provident Funds, Primary Dealers, Commercial banks and, Scheduled Urban cooperative banks, who maintain current account and securities account with RBI. The Electronic platform is used by all members of PDO-NDS to place their bids in the auction. For non NDS members, to participate in auction the route lies through Scheduled Commercial Bank or Primary Dealers.

For this purpose, the non NDS members have to maintain Gilt accounts with the Institution through which it is idding in the auction process. A guilt account is dematerialized account maintained by a scheduled bank or a primary dealer for those investors who have gone through them to bid in the auction. An indicative Half yearly auction calendar containing all relevant information about the bonds is issued by RBI in consultation with Govt. of India.. About one week prior to actual date of auction RBI release through Print and Electronic media all the relevant details.

Auction conducted by RBI can either be Yield based or Price based. (i) Yield based auctions are conducted for new bonds issue. In this type of auction the coupon rate gets fixed through a market based Price discovery process. In this process, investors bid in yield terms up to two decimal places. The cut off yield is arrived at the yield corresponding to the notified amount, when the bids are arranged in ascending order. (ii) Price based auctions are conducted when Govt. of India re issues bonds issued earlier. In this auction, bidders quote in term of price of face value.

After this the bids are arranged in descending order and those who have bid at or above the cut off price are declared successful idder. The successful bidder can be allocated bonds on Uniform Price Base and Multiple Price Base. Based on this, auction can be classified as Uniform Price base and Multiple Price base. In the case of Multiple Price base, all the successful bidders pay for the allocated quantity of bonds at the auction cut off price irrespective of their quoted price. In case of multiple Price base the successful bidders pay for the allocated quantity at their quoted rates.

The bidding in an auction can be (a) Competitive bidding, (b) Noncompetitive bidding. In competitive bidding, investors id at a price/yield as per his/her perspective of the market dynamics and is allocated the bonds if the price/yield is within the cut off price. In noncompetitive bidding, an opportunity is provided to retail investors to participate in auction. In this process, the investors apply for a certain number of bonds without any mention to price/yield, after this, bidders are allocated bonds at the weighted average price/yield of the auction.

The bonds are traded in the secondary market by the means as follows,(a) Negotiated Dealing Systems. (b) Over the counter. (c) Negotiated Dealing system-order matching. d) Stock Exchange for retail investors. Commercial Banks, Primary dealers and Insurance companies are the dominant players in Government Bonds market. There are other participants such as Co-operative banks, provident and pension funds. Corporate houses are also trading in Govt. Bonds in their endevour to manage their overall portfolio risk. The role of the market maker is played by the Primary Dealers.

Clearing Corporation of India Limited is the central counterparty for all transactions in the Govt. bonds i. e. during settlement CClL is the trades which are undertaken on OTC market and NDS-OM platform. After CClL receives all the trade details/information, it calculates the participant wise obligation and then it passes the details to RBI where the settlement happens by simultaneous transfer of funds and bonds through Delivery versus Payment (DVP) system. (B) Corporate Bond Market: Bonds issued by Financial Institutions, Public Sector Units and Corporate houses constitute Corporate Bonds . ndia, when compared to other developed countries and other Asian countries, does not have a well-developed Corporate Bond market in terms of liquidity and depth. The share of corporate bonds n Indian debt market is very low in comparison to Government bonds. It is in last twenty years some reforms favoring the corporate bonds have taken place in the Indian market. Abolition of ceiling on the interest rate, which was earlier stipulated by Controller of Capital issues on corporate bonds in the year 1992. NSE and BSE started trading in debt instruments through their WDM segment in the year 1994 and 2001 respectively.

In the year 2007 SEBI made regulator and use of electronic payment facility for coupon and redemption started. Reporting platforms set up by NSE and BSE to capture trading data of corporate bonds. Listed bonds were exempted from Tax deduction at source in 2008. Year 2010 saw mandatory clearing and settlement of all trades through centralized clearing house, and SEBI issued directions to exchanges to present issuer related information on their websites in a uniform format and, to issuer to use interest rate convention of Actual/Actual.

In June 2011 SEBI instructed exchanges to do away with Shut Period for interest payments or for part redemption. SEBI amended the Regulations of Mutual Funds that permits Mutual Funds to set up Infrastructure Debt funds under Mutual Funds frame work in August 2011. In September 2011, Third party valuation by Credit agencies and its disclosure to public was made mandatory by SEBI for corporate bonds. Anatomy of Indian Corporate Market: ISSUERS (i) The largest and most active corporate bond issuers in Indian market are the Public Sector Undertakings. ii) The second largest player in issuer category are the non-banking finance companies. INVESTORS in this market are primarily insurance companies, banks, mutual funds and, provident funds. Fll are also buying corporate bonds after opening up of the limit by SEBI. A snap shot of Trading in Corporate bonds in last six years YEAR NUMBER OF TRADES AMOUNT(IN CRORES) 2007-08 19079 95889. 706 2008-09 22683 148166. 180 2009-10 38230 401 198. 040 2010-11 605274. 240 2011-12 51 533 593783. 000 2012-13 66383 738631 . 60 Source: www. sebi. gov. in The issue can be public or private placement. In private placement the issue is offered to a select group of buyers. The table below compares the public issues with private placements in last 3 years. YEAR TYPE NUMBER OF ISSUES PUBLIC 10 9451. 17 PRIVATE PLC 1404 218785. 41 20 35610. 7 1953 261282. 65 16982. 05 489 361462. 00 From the table above it is obvious that in private placement there has been increase in the mobilization of funds. For the quarter ending June 2013, Rs 1. 1 lakhs crores was raised by the companies through private placement of corporate bonds, but for significantly on the RBI''s liquidity tightening measures announced in July. The corporate bond market in India is under developed and the main issues concerning its development are as follows: (a) Private Placement in numerous numbers leading to fragmentation and to deterrent in liquidity. Private placement route for raising inance through corporate bonds is generally used by small and medium corporate houses due to ease of issuance, lack of interest from retail, cost considerations and greater institutional demand.

Over 95% of issuances in India are through private placement and this leads to multiple issues with fragmentation and low liquidity. (b) Inadequate liquidity due to poor turnover of corporate bonds in the secondary market because of buy and hold strategy of institutional buyers coupled with lack of proper market infrastructure. (c) Due to absence of interest rate/credit derivatives hich can efficiently transfer the risks on account of interest rate movements and default probabilities have led to the inability of corporate bond market to pick up in India. d) Lack of greater retail participation. (e) In Indian corporate bond market, 25 years is the tenure of the longest maturity bond, which does not meet the requirement of long term investors who require higher tenure bonds. In comparison Government bonds are available in longer tenure to meet the requirements of long term investor. There had been a number of reforms in the Indian corporate bond market since1992, but still the market is nderdeveloped and its size as compared to the global market and other Asian countries is very meager.

The Corporate bond market will evolve as we proceed in our quest for economic development and with help of reforms and better transparency in this market, the borrowing needs of corporate houses will be met by this market that will eventually lessen the dependence of corporate houses on banks for financing and credit risks gets spread out in the economy. References: a. www. sebi. gov. in b. www. rbi. org. in c. IOSR-JBM, ISSN: 2278-478, ISSUE 4(SEPT OCT 2012), pp;46-50

Exploring Aspects Of Inner Beauty And Outer Beauty\N\N\N

The beauty around you How would you choose-weather date someone who is physically attracting you or someone who had a warm heart? Beauty is a characteristic, a quality. Although beauty can have different forms, both physical and inner beauties are very important. Beauty can actually be found very easily in people. The three main differences between physical beauty and inner beauty are appearance, personality and meaning. Physical appearance is a significant difference we can see. Physical beauty pretty much depends on gene. The good looking people can easily attract others attention; irls want to be pretty because it gives them confidence.

On the contrary, not every inner beautiful people can have a nice outlook. In addition, most of us are less likely to interest at someone who doesn''t "look" beautiful although we know nothing about them. As a result, Physical impression is an obvious difference. Another notable difference between these two kinds of beauties is personality. The physically beautiful people might lack some of the most important characters. In other words, the people who only focus on their physical appearance often ignore the importance of friendships and how to dealing with others.

For example, it''s not easy to have a long marriage in Hollywood! The inner beautiful people however, are generally behaved as kind, warm hearted and honest. This group of people usually earned more trust and respects. Therefore personality is a very obvious difference. Regardless of the appearance and personality, physical beauty and inner beauty both have positive meaning. Physical beauty is the natural beauty on the outside, everyone wants to be beautiful on appearance. Filming stars, models, even cars are noticeable because they are beautiful outside. Inner beauty is the beauty from inside.

Inner beauty can always affect things around people, which will also make people become beautiful. Under those circumstances, both physical and inner beauties are good characteristics. Appearance, personality and meaning played the major differences and similarities between physical beauty and inner beauty. Physically beauty basically depends on how you look like, it is the beauty appeared physically. Inner beauty refers to the beauty inside of you, especially how beautiful your personality is. Both physical and inner beauties are very beautiful characteristics. Although there are differences between physical beauty and inner


Antigone BY Hunter43311234 The Family Dies What would drive three people to self-destruct themselves? It could have been a family tragedy. In Sophocles Antigone Antigone buries her brother, which is against the law, but she still does it and gets sent to a cave to be killed. Creon, the leader, must make a big descion to keep his authority. Through Koryphaios''s conversation with Creon he convinces him not to kill Antigone. Leaders need to enforce laws to keep a country alive. Haimon, Creon''s son, is engaged to Antigone. Haimon talks to Creon and he gives upportive reasons not to kill her.

Creon is very stubborn and won''t listen, because he thinks he is always right. Creon shows signs of Hubris or too much pride or self- confidence. Then Haimon basically tells Creon that he is wrong, but Creon has too much pride to change: "Please be different this once. Believe in what someone else says for once. Whenever a man supposes that he alone has intelligence or expression or feelings, he exposes himself and shows his emptiness but it''s no shame even for a wise man to learn and to relent(49)" Then Koryphaios tries to help Haimon and upports him, but Creon won''t listen: "What he says is to the point, sir.

You may do well to learn from him. And you too, from your father both have spoken well (49). " Koryphaios is trying to get Creon to maybe listen to someone else. He thinks that Haimon and Creon should work more together than against each other. If that wasn''t enough Teiresias, an oracle, tells Creon to let her go. Yet again Creon won''t change. Creon feels if he lets her go his people will lose respect for him. Finally Teiresias has had enough and he cursed Creon. The curse says that is Creon doesn''t et Antigone go then his family shall die by suicide.

Koryphaios Informs Creon that Teiresias has never been known to lie, but Creon won''t change his mind: "Creon, IVe lived a long time, and l, no, none of us has ever known Teiresias to lie (63). " Yet again Koryphaios thinks Creon will listen, But Creon Just won''t listen. Even when Teiresias Cursed Creon he still didn''t listen. After Teiresias left Creon asks Koryphaios for advice: "Creon: What should I do? Tell me. I promise to comply. Koryphaios: Go, release the girl from the cave. And uild a tomb for the body you cast out(63). A messenger comes and informs Koryphaios that Haimon has killed himself. Then haimon says that he killed himself out of hate of his father. Turns out that Antigone killed herself then Haimon killed himself, all because Creon won''t let them be together. Euradice, Creon''s wife, hears Creon enforced a law to an extent that got his family killed. He found out that Teiresias didn''t lie to him, and the prophecy came true. Creon had Hubris. This is important because it''s the reason that he wouldn''t listen to anyone.

Creon made it a law that no one could burry Polynesis. Antigone Just wanted to bury Polynesis because she felt he needed a proper burial. Its important that Antigone buried her brother because then he could go to hades. Creon didn''t want her to get away with it, but he finally had t let it go. He should have listened to everyone who had given him advice, and told him what to do. Creon found out the hard way that leaders need to enforce laws but learn to change them when they are wrong. Leaders need to see their mistakes and change it..

Consumers As Men And Women

consumers as men and women BY kcg2013 Women shop much different from men. Women like to take their time, buy a variety of things, and shop a lot. Men on the other hand like to get what they need, get out of the store, and they do not shop often. When women go shopping, they do not Just go for what they need. Women shop for their wants a lot. For example, if a women goes into the store Just for a pair of pants that they need, an hour later they will come out with shoes, pants, and shirts. Us women walk around stores slowly and look at everything hanging up and on the shelves.

The amount of time men and women spend shopping is drastically ifferent. When it comes to shopping, men are more goal-oriented and are usually on a mission. They know what they need to get and have it all planned from before. Therefore, at the store all they have to do is buy it and leave. On the other hand, women are likely to stroll around the mall, try out few things, and look around new brands and more. When women go clothing shopping it takes them awhile. Women do not Just go to any store either.

A lot of women have to wear name brand clothes such as American Eagle, Victoria Secret Pink, and Abercrombie and Fitch. Women like to impress the public with our outfits. Not only do women take a long time to shop we also buy everything at the stores. Women buy every color of the same shirt, Jeans, and sweaters. Men on the other hand are not as particular. Most men do not care what their outfit looks like. Half the time men do not even match. Although most men do not care there are some men who do. Women like their shoes as well.

Women like to have a variety of shoes so they can match their outfits. They are also, normally name brand. Women of course like Uggs, Sperry''s, and of course Nike sneakers. Men though, already have their mind set that their going in the store, uying sneakers and getting out. A lot of times men do not even look at the price. They will Just pick the sneakers up and buy them. Name brand clothes and shoes are not the only things women need. Women need make-up and hair supplies as well. Women are picky even with what kind of make-up and hair supplies they use.

For example, I have to use Loreal massacre and Pantene hair products. Men obviously do not care what''s so ever what they use. As long as they have shampoo, body wash and deodorant they are okay. If the man is married they do not even have to go buy this stuff. Their wives purchase the products for them. Now if the man is single, then yes they have to go to Walmart or somewhere and buy the products. Men have hobbies Just like women. Women''s hobbies contain of shopping of course or Just decorating the house.

Women have to go buy the decorations such as lamps, rugs, or Just simple picture frames. Women like to do that because they get to go toa store and shop. Men have different hobbies. Some men enjoy hunting, fishing, working on cars, or landscaping at their house. All of these hobbies consist of men having to shop. For example, if men need hunting supplies they go to Cabelas and buy tree stands, camouflage, or guns. If they have a hobby and they need to get supplies, then they will not mind going to the store.

There are a lot more differences shop for bargains where as men do not. Women like to go shopping frequently where men like to go shopping every month or two. A lot of men get irritated when they know they have to go out and buy something at a store. They don''t mind going to an Advanced Auto Parts, but they do not want to go with their wives or girlfriends to go out and go clothes shopping. A lot of times men will Just let their wives buy them their clothes. They do not care what they put on. As long as it covers them up they will put them on.

Women and men as consumers have a lot of differences. They have more differences than similarities. There is one similar thing between women and men as consumers though. If either gender has a hobby, it will make it a lot easier to go shopping. Women will always be better at shopping. Women will always shop much different than men. Women shop much more and much longer. Men shop much less and much quicker. Most women and men are much different types of consumers. Women shop and men buy. While walking around a store you will see more women than men.

Friday, September 29, 2017

Steve Jobs Rhetorical Analysis

Steve Jobs Rhetorical Analysis BY Mike-Biello Steve Jobs lived a life unparalleled by the common man. Raising some of the most successful corporations from the ground up, being at the forefront of the technological revolution, and battling pancreatic cancer for a number of years were all things that he succeeded in accomplishing throughout his 56 years of life. He also happened to deliver a brilliant commencement address to one of the finest academic institutions in the world. Any college graduate in the audience that sunny afternoon at Stanford University was in for a treat.

The irony behind the whole situation was the act that Steve Jobs himself, although arguably one of the most successful men of the 21st century, never graduated college. "... this is the closest I''ve ever gotten to a college graduation", Jobs confesses immediately after he begins speaking. Throughout the speech, the experiences he shares with the audience all share a common theme; the pursuit of happiness will lead you down the road of success if you follow your intuition and do what makes you truly happy.

He conveys this message with the use of a cause and effect analysis, contrast, and personal anecdotes. Personal experiences help to create and develop individuality. Steve Jobs learned this at an early age as a young man attending Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Job''s was not certain what he wanted to do with his life and was very indecisive when selecting a major. After six months he decided to drop out of school and found himself sleeping somewhere other than a place of his own.

Jobs explains, "l didn''t have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends'' rooms, I returned coke bottles for the 5C deposits to buy food with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. (l) Initially it seemed somewhat odd for him to be mentioning a stage in his life that resembled the lifestyle of a vagabond. As he continues to speak, you realize he shares his college experiences to relate to his audience on a more personal level.

Jobs wanted to present himself in a manner that many college students could relate to in one way or another. Although these conditions may not seem ideal for most, Jobs loved it. With so much free time on his hands, he dropped in on classes he thought he would enjoy. "Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in he country... I learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great. "(l) At the time, he took the class simply because he thought he would like it.

Ten years later, his decision to learn calligraphy would pay off when designing the new Macintosh computer. "When we were designing the first Macintosh (computer), it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, he Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. "(l) Jobs had attended a class for no reason other than to learn something he thought he would enjoy and it ended up helping to define a revolutionary computer system.

The way he coped with the adversity of his situation presented him with experiences and cause and effect strategy in his speech, the cause being him dropping out of classes and the effect being the acquisition of a priceless computer typeface system. "And since Windows Just copied the Mac, it''s likely that no personal computer would have them... " (1). He also pokes a little bit of fun at his competitors. Starting a business is a decision that over half a million people in our country decide to make every year. The obvious goal of each business is to maximize profits, however many companies struggle to find the right recipe for success.

Steve Jobs and close friend Steve Wozniacki decided to start up the company Apple in Job''s garage at the age of twenty. "We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from Just the two of us in a garage into a two billion dollar company with over 4000 employees"(l). It seemed there was no stopping the growth of Apple, Jobs had finally found omething he loved to do. At the age of thirty however, Jobs received some unfortunate news. He was fired from the company that he had started. To go from a position of seemingly limitless potential to being unemployed, there seems no bigger contrast in lifestyle.

However, rather than laying down and admitting defeat Jobs decides to brainstorm new ideas and enters what he considers to be one of the most creative stages of his life. "The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything"(l). Over the next five years, several important events happen in Job''s life. He starts two new companies, NeXT and Pixar, and finds the woman he wants to marry. Soon after, something would happen next that no one could have anticipated. In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought NeXT, and I returned to Apple, and the technology we developed at NeXT is at the heart of Apple''s current renaissance... "and he also adds, "And Laurene and I have a wonderful family together"(l). Steve shares this story with the audience to prove that no matter what situation you get placed in, making the most of it will pay off. He knows that as college graduates about to enter the orkforce, being placed in an environment unfamiliar to them is all too likely. In order to succeed you must be able to follow your heart and adapt to your new surroundings. I''m pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn''t been fired from Apple. It was awful tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed it"(l). Finding the bright side of any situation, no matter how rough it may be, is an essential step in the rebuilding process. Job''s is encouraging the Stanford graduates to be resilient to any adversity they face. Throughout his speech, Jobs discussed in detail three events that had an infallible ffect on the person he had become. The reason these personal anecdotes resonated so strongly with me was due to the fact that all of them were negative experiences rather than positive ones.

What Jobs wanted the audience to take away from these experiences was the fact that success is not easy to come by and you will face struggles along the way. The reason he succeeded is because he never gave up on doing what he loved, and any challenge you overcome will only make you more adept at handling similar situations in the future. Indicative of his track record, the audience has a solid incentive to listen his advice. When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: ''If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you''ll most certainly be right. (l). Jobs was determined to leave his mark on the world. By simply this man sets an example that would be wise to follow. He speaks with confidence and his tone assures those listening that his life would not have turned out the same way if he hadn''t blazed his own trial and was influenced by the voices of others. mfour time is limited, so dont waste it living someone else''s life. Dont be trapped by dogma which is living with the results of other people''s thinking"(l). Steve Jobs was an ndividual who knew what he wanted in life.

He did not allow anyone to impede upon his progress and his success will have an effect on those Stanford graduates well after they proceed from the stadium. Speeches have the ability to be very powerful. However, when not delivered in an effective manner, they can also have an adverse effect. Steve Jobs does a brilliant Job demonstrating the way to go about delivering a speech. He does not speak down to the students, but rather he levels out the playing field. They students can relate to Jobs because everyone encounters struggles in life, it''s how you deal with those truggles that makes all the difference.

What he wanted for the graduates he was speaking too was nothing more than to give them the confidence to do whatever they want in life with no reluctance. He also states, "Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. '' It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I''ve always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you: Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish"(l). No matter what; the pursuit of happiness will lead you down the road of success if you follow your intuition and do what makes you truly happy.

Agents Of Socialization

Agents of Socialization Each of us as individuals is unique in different aspects of our characters. The agents of socialization aid further and play a central role in moulding us as social fgures amongst society. In order for us to become well-functioning citizens in society there must be certain steps one must take. At the end of the day the focus is creating an expert society for us to benefit and for the society to function properly. We all exhibit our own personality in some way or the other and a lot of that is due to the fact that we are influenced severely by these agents of socialization.

In the ensuing paragraphs I would like to discuss the role my family, school, peer group, mass media and religion has played in influencing the development of my personality. As toddlers when we are born we are cared for endlessly by our parents, older siblings and other family members. When we begin to grow up and mature physically and mentally, we become aware of our surroundings and adapt to particular situations or circumstances. From a child, I became accustomed to many things but I also had to learn many things. My parents instilled within me the values and iscipline one must possess to become efficient in society.

My older brother and sister gave me the courage to push forward and aim for the best that I could accomplish no matter what. The family, from my point of view, is the sole foundation of any individual''s life and as a result it is the most influential agent on my personality as a person. I owe a lot to my family in the way I am right now and the person I''m proud to be. Standing up for myself and taking on new challenges and embedding myself in our society has helped me realize how important my family is s an agent of socialization and what it means for everyone.

I have learnt that I need to work along with others in order to create a better place for everyone. My personality and the way I see things is largely as a result of the way I was grown at home and I believe that it has played a major part in my life as well. Although we may spend most of our times at home, a large period of time can also be accounted for at school. It is the most populated institution around the world by children, youths and even adults for the purpose of becoming educated and aware of he Job market. School has also given me a considerable amount of influence in my personality.

From a child even up to this point in time, IVe been educated and taught responsible and careful in all my years at school and it has showed me the essence of my personality and the way I look at things from an educational stand point. School has nurtured me and my personality into a mature and intelligent individual, not being proud or anything of that sort, but it has opened my eyes onto scenarios I never knew before. Similarly, my peer groups I have come to associate myself with ver the years have influenced my personality as well.

My friends and associates have helped me to learn that sometimes it''s good to have fun and as well it''s good to relax and take some time for myself. It''s amazing how much a group of people can influence a person but there are limits. Interestingly, I have learned lessons from my peers that can get me a far way in my life and in society; however, my personality is based mostly on the lessons IVe learnt mainly from mistakes that we''ve made. I have realized that I need to focus on what lies ahead and learn from the mistakes we made as individuals.

My peers have also showed me the importance of looking out for the best interests of others rather than only yourselves. The television, radio, newspapers etc. has also pitched in in developing my personality further as I continue to age. Whether it is entertainment, information, or just plain stories, I have acquired a lot of basic skills and knowledge from the mass media in order for me myself to become a better-rounded citizen. The quality of information that is capable of being obtained from these sources has assisted greatly in my endeavours and drawing nearer to my goals.

Likewise and in as much importance, religion has been key to my overall personality as an individual. For me, without God, I wouldn''t even exist and so it is Just to give Him the necessary thanks and credit for all that I am and have become. The wisdom of the Bible and God Himself has given me the personal background that I need in order to live and function like anything else. I have seen the importance of religion in my personality and without it I believe I wouldn''t be the person I am today.

Therefore, as IVe written, all of these agents of socialization in some form or the ther have contributed to my personality on a whole and the person I am presently. It is amazing to see how many aspects can influence your personality but yet it doesn''t stop there. I have come to the conclusion that each one of us as individuals holds a part to the society and we need to put it together in order to have a complete society. We all need to lend a helping hand to each other and in so doing we will benefit greatly from this movement. 1. Macionis,J. Sociology. (12 ed. , pp. 125-129). Pearson Education International. society-needs-religion. php.

Sweat: Fiction And Natural Surroundings

Barry Webster''s short story "Sweat" is the narrative of the relationship between a girl, who sweats honey during her puberty, and her social environment. In the text, Webster explores the theme of self-acceptance. Although the depiction of the adverse social circumstances first deny the main character''s self-acceptance, she finally discovers at the end of the story that self-acceptance varies from circumstances to circumstances. Webster''s suggestion that self-recognition is different depending the surrounding is developed through the diction of her thought, he setting and the symbolism of the natural surroundings.

The social pressure at school first denies the main character''s self-acceptance. Through the use of diction, the narrator states that "l [Sue] though I could hide my affliction. " In other words, Sue intends to conceal her problem to the eyes of the others, which is to sweat honey. The employment of the word "affliction" emphasis that to sweat honey is more than a simple sickness, but a shameful oppression. Hence, her thought indicates that she does not accept herself as a carrier of the illness.

When Jimmy asked Sue to go to the bushes with him, Sue accepts it. The narrator then makes an ironic interrogation that "If I found and gave way to a desire for Jimmy, would a balance be regained? Would my honey finally stop flowing? " Of course, to accord love to Jimmy will release the main character from the illness of sweating honey is extremely ludicrous and will eventually not happen. However, her interrogation reflects her strong wish to find a way to heal her desperate problem of honey and finally to appear normal under the egards of her peers.

Thus, under the power of social pressure at school, Sue''s desires to cloak and to eliminate her sickness prove that she doesn''t accept herself as being the carrier of the disease. The natural surroundings, especially the wind, described by the narrator have an enormous symbolism suggesting that self- acceptance is unconditional. While Sue is in the bushes with Jimmy, she notices a wind passing and expresses her feeling that "The wind woke an excitement in my motionless body.

It made every pore in my skin open wide. The narrator also used the word "pores" while she describes her body that "from my pores came liquid, golden honey such as the bees crave. " In fact, the word "pores" portrays the main character''s body. Sue mentions that the wind "made every pore in my skin open wide" means that every time the she gets in physical contact with the wind, she is forced to feel the presence of her body. Sue first states that "I''d always feared the Cartwright wind".

In the last paragraph, as the she runs away from the school and eaches the open field near her house, she illustrates that "air will free me wind is what happens when air falls in love with itself". Her apprehensive feeling for the wind is a depiction of her fear to "love" herself. In other words, the main character is deliberated from her fear to regard herself and accepts herself as she is. Thus, under the presence of the wind, the narrator changes her self-perception from inacceptable to acceptable. The setting of the short story represents another significant evidence to show that self-approval is unconditional.

Near the end of the story, the narrator finds herself in a "empty plain. " The word "empty" emphasis that she is in total isolation from the society. Then, she starts to describe her body that "this body I lived thighs, this chest rising and falling like the swell of the ocean were mine—were me. " Without the presence of the social circumstance, the narrator is doing a self- identification by admitting "this body were mine—were me. " The main character immediately states after that " I''ll love the sweetness of sweat". In fact, sweat is Just sweat. No matter


My love affair with fashion started years ago, but over these past 2 years it has grown into something so beautiful. Fashion made it''s grand entrance in my life when I was looking over a Chanel catalog along with a few other designers. For example; Vera Wang, Louis Vuitton, Christian Dior, Marc Jacobs, Phoebe Philo, and many more. The designs caught my eye and I was Just mesmerized by it all. It literally took my breath away! I always told myself and my family that I will grow to be an amazing fashion designer and sell beautiful, elegant clothing known to man.

A worldwide known designer. The day I opened that catalog was the day that my mind went into a world win spiral. So many ideas flooded my brain that I went out and bought my first sketch book to begin on this fashion Journey. I started out drawing a pair of straight leg white dress pants, followed by a beautiful silk pink button up blouse. It was simply stunning. To follow this outfit I would dress it up with a pair of pink pumps and a pair of earrings, it keeps it classy but yet remains stylish. It''s what you call business elegant. The outfit screamed "WEAR ME! I went to school the next day and showed many people my work and they all said that they were in love. They all wanted me to draw to a design for them to. It shocked me how many people actually liked my work, but I was more than happy to do it. It comes Offa tad bit extreme or "unrealistic" but I have many goals and expectations for myself. Some people may even say I dream to big, but in my opinion no dream is ever to big and I will never stop thinking that way. My goals in life are to first complete this last year of high school with at least a 3. 7-4. 0 GPA.

Then I''m making it my goal to get into FIDM and major in Fashion design/Product Development and double my major with Business Management. After Attending FIDM and graduating ith my Associate of Arts degree and my Bachelor of Science Degree, I plan on opening up my own store. I want to be successful and to be a world fashion icon. As you can see I DREAM BIG! But I can''t help myself, fashion is something that I''m very passionate about and I won''t stop until I succeed. There are so many reasons why I selected FIDM. One of many reasons is because they screamed out "I''M DIFFERENT! The Entire concept and education behind FIDM is one of a kind, it''s a smaller setting with a large school feel. They really focus on you and what you want to do with your career, while helping you every step of the way. To me that is really important because you can''t get that real one on one with a teacher at a large university. Another reason why I love FIDM so much is because of the great opportunities that they offer. For example, they help you find a part time Job at the beginning of the year, and then it turns into an internship with some of the largest fashion companies like Chanel, Juicy Couture, Louis Vuitton and many more.

That''s what made the school standout for me. They are so focused on your future; it feels great knowing that I will have such an amazing support team behind me in making level! No other school is like FIDM. This is my dream school! I picked Fashion Design for many reasons, one being that I love being hands on. I love the fact that I can look back and say "Wow, I designed that". It is Just such a great feeling, it''s hard to explain. I know that fashion is my calling in life, so when I found FIDM and see their course description, I Jumped all over this school.

It teaches you everything from drawing, color theory, and fashion history from past to present. What appealed me most about fashion design and product development is the concept, in my eyes fashion is "walking art", it is a mixture of the oldest fashion to todays latest rends. I love the fact that I can be so diverse and creative with my designs. Adding a new piece, changing the color or even making something that hasn''t even be thought of. I love being different, having out of the box, off the all ideas. I love making beautiful clothes and mix matching clothes together.

I''m also going to double my major with Business management. the reason why I''m deciding to do that is because IVe always wanted to own my own business and to be my own boss, it''s a big dream of mine. I read into the course and what it has to offer me and it was so direct and traight to the point, teaching you everything you need to know before getting into the industry. What really stood out to me is the 95% rate of the business management graduates that found a Job right after graduation. To me that''s amazing!

It''s also another big reason why I decided to double my major. If you thought this was handful, then wait till you hear this! As you can see in my 3rd paragraph I mentioned something about opening my own store, which is a goal of mine after graduating from FIDM. Not only do I want to open my own store but spread my unique style around the world. I would love to open stores in places like ans, Milan, spam and many more. Like I said WORLD WIDE FASHION ICON! -ro add onto all of this I would love to have my very own line and or take the time to redesign some one else''s line.

I want to get my hands in any & everything that has to do with fashion. Another goal is to be well-known designer that is affordable for not Just celebrities but for everyday people as well. Who knows who I could inspire with my designs? I only want to be successful and have a career that I will enjoy for the rest of my life. That is all that I want in life, and I know that FIDM can do that for me and that''s why I choose them. Well that''s me in a nutshell! FIDM has simply taken my breath away and made me fall in love with fashion even more.

I know that fashion is my calling in life and I know that attending FIDM can take me to bigger and better things in this industry. Last but not least it is my ultimate dream to be a leader and role model in this fashion industry. I want to inspire young girls and boys how I was once inspired and still am. I want to show them that with hard work and perseverance that you can accomplish anything you set your mind to. Like I always say "A design isn''t a design until you make it come to life, then it''s considered walking art".

Investigating Stoichiometry With Carbonic Acid Salts

Investigating Stoichiometry with Carbonic Acid Salts Problem: Testing the actual yield versus the theoretical yield of NaCl when HCI is titrated into Na2C03 and NaHC03. When 0. 15g of both NaHC03 and Na2C03 are titrated with HCI, then 0. 165g of NaCl should form from the NaHC03, and 0. 104g of NaCl should form from the 0. 15g of Na2C03. Procedure: Weigh 2 samples of 0. 15g of dried unknown each, and dissolve each into 50mL of distilled water. Add 0. 5 to 1 mL of bromocresol green indicator until the solution turns blue. Titrate the HCI until it turns green. Gently heat and boil out the C02. It should turn blue again.

Continue the titration until it turns yellow. Heat the solution and let the water evaporate. Weigh the glassware with the solid formed at the bottom, NaCl. Dispose of the NaCl, rinse and dry the glassware. Weigh the empty glassware and record. Find the difference from 5 and 6. Do this for both flasks. Results: In table 1 . 1, the mixture of HCI and unknown sample 1 were combined. It took about 19. 5mL of HCI to turn the solution yellow, after heating and evaporating the water from the solution, the glassware with the NaCl weighed 92. 84g. When the glassware was weighed again after the NaCl was washed out, it was 92. 69g. There was 0. g of NaCl that had formed. In table 1. 2, the mixture of HCI and unkown sample 2 were combined. It took 40mL of HCI to turn the solution yellow, after the heating and evaporation of the water, the glassware with the NaCl weighed 76. 38g. When the glassware was weighed again after the NaCl was washed out, it was 76. 24g. There was 0. 14g of NaCl that had formed. Discussion: The results for example 2 might have been off, when titrating the solution we added too much HCI and turned the solution yellow instead of green. So instead of boiling the solution until it turned blue again, we had to boil the solution to evaporate the ater.

That may have thrown off the amount of NaCl that was supposed to form after the water evaporated. Data: The data that was collected was reasonable, the error wasn''t too large and both results were close to the theoretical values. Conclusion: We learned that the theoretical yields of a solution can be reached if all the steps are followed exactly; by over titrating sample number 2, we skipped the steps to boil the solution back to blue and then re-titrate to yellow. We have learned that over titrating can throw off your actual yield. Investigating Stoichiometry with Carbonic Acid Salts By boopidyboo


Joyce, Good point on a potential impact on information technology in the workplace. While the manufacturing industries take a hit, it seems like the the individuals that are employed are working harder or longer hours than they did in the past to achieve the bottom line. There is no doubt that technology, automation, foreign competition have increased productivity. On a positive note technology can make people more wealthy by freeing up resources to address more problems, satisfy the consumers needs at an accelerated pace, freeing up labor to create new industries.

Near Field communications (NFC) is already becoming a familiar trend in smartphones. Aside from mobile payments, i. e. google wallet, many handset vendors have been using NFC technology as a way to set their product apart from competitors. Maybe Apple will Jump on the bandwagon and introduce NFC technology in its next I-phone 6 release. Even though NFC has been around for the last ten years, I think the ways that it will be utilized will evolve in years to come. One example of this is home automation.

Pairing smartphones with household appliances uch as cameras, washing machines, vacuums and refrigerators with the ability to use them remotely may become a new alternative down the road. Voice recognition in home automation can also be an expanding trend. Many smart TVs has voice controls that require a person to be a few feet away from the screen, to enable the television''s setup mode for voice and require them to speak into their remote control. New voice recongition platform will be able to use one''s voice to control the temperture, shades, lighting, home security and audio/visual functions on the television without the remote control.


Charles Wingate Principles of Sociology Professor Ciliberto Paper #4 Deviance Deviance is the recognized violence of cultural norms. The concept of deviance is very broad because norms are what guide human activity. Deviant acts are known as crime, which is the violation of a society''s formally enacted criminal law. Criminal deviance varies from a wide range including minor traffic violations, and major violations such as robbery and murder. Society tries to regulate people''s thoughts and behavior through social control.

Social control can be informal such as parents raising their children when they do well, or punishing them when they do something wrong. Cases of serious deviance involve the criminal Justice system. How society defines deviance, who is branded as deviant, and what people decide to do about deviance all do with the way society is organized. Psychologists think that personality is shaped primarily by social experience; which allows for deviance to be viewed as the result of unsuccessful learning within socialization.

From the symbolic-interaction perspective theorist would say deviant behavior is learned or is part of socially constructed reality that emerges in nteraction . Our social experiences along with the society by which we live in determine our odds of acquiring deviance. The Labeling Theory is the idea that deviance and conformity result from how others react to what people do, not necessarily the act of what they do. As far as deviance is concerned, people may define the behavior in a number of ways.

Deviance can be classified as both primary and secondary. Primary deviance according to Edwin Lemert is norm violations that provoke slight reaction from other and have little effect on a person''s self-concept. In ontrast Lemert refers to secondary deviance as the change in self concept, or when a person begins to employ deviant behavior as a means of defense, attack, or adjustment to the problems created by social reaction. " A stigma is a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person''s self-concept and social identity.

Once people stigmatize an individual, they may engage in retrospective labeling, which is the act of interpreting someone''s past in light of some present deviance. An example of this is if someone were to find out that their neighbor was a child molester, theyd utomatically think "he always wanted to be around children anyw•aY'', based on his past. Another prime example of this is the situation that occurred with Penn state. Now that the whistle has been officially blown on Sandusky, everyone is saying that the reason why he hosted these underprivileged young men for the football camps was so that he could take sexual advantage of them.

People may also engage in projective building of stigmatized person, which uses a person''s deviant behavior to predict their future actions. Once someone finds out that another person committed a deviant act, they will assume that the person is oing to continue with these deviant acts until they get caught and punished. The thus increasing the chance that they will indeed come to pass. Like Coolers "Looking Glass Self", the social construction of reality is a variable process of detection, definition, and response.

Sometimes individuals try to label behavior that they do not like, as deviant instead of as different. They even go as far as labeling them as mental illnesses. Psychiatrist Thomas Szasz stated that in order to avoid this practice is to abandon the idea of mental illness completely. Just because someone is different to he point where they irritate us, does not mean that we should define them as being mentally ill. It is imperative to think critically about how we define the word "different".

Szasz believed that those who are truly mentally ill cannot help their condition in the same way that a patient with cancer cannot help theirs. He also felt that ordinary people without the proper medical knowledge should not give off the diagnosis. People often try to medicalize deviance by using clinical diagnosis. If someone does something that is "bad", the label is scientifically swapped to "sick" hile "good" changes to "well". Alcoholics were originally viewed as weak people but now, alcoholism is considered a disease which means are alcoholics are not "bad", they simply are not "well".

This leads to deviance being a learned behavior because the deviant person themselves will soon begin to believe that they are not well, and will use this as an excuse for their actions. Sutherland''s Differential Association Theory claims that a person''s tendency towards conformity or deviance depends on the amount of contact with others and who encourage or reject conventional behavior. Studies have shown that young people are more likely to engage in deviant behavior if they believe that their peers are doing so as well.

In a gang environment, current gang members resocialize new members to norms that oppose those of the dominant culture. From the gang, these new members learn that stealing, carrying a gun, and using drugs are acceptable behaviors, whereas they were not before. In the meantime, the norms they learned at home are no longer acceptable within the gang environment, and they must reject those norms and values to accept the new ones. Current gang members also teach new members how to commit pecific deviant acts, such as hotwiring a car or breaking into a home.

Even, in highschool a lot of the rebel students try and get other student to cut class, don''t do homework and pull fire alarms. The norms that the school administration has put on these students are no longer deemed "cool" to the rebel students and now they try and change other student to engage in deviant behavior. Travis Hirschi''s Control Theory states that social control depends on people anticipating the consequences of their behavior. Hirschi links deviance to four different types of social control. The first s attachment, String social attachments encourage conformity.

People who feel a strong attachment to other people, such as family or close friends, are less likely to be deviant. If people have weak relationships, they feel less need to conform to the other person''s or group''s norms. They are more likely to commit a deviant act. The second is opportunity. Individuals who have a sincere commitment to legitimate goals are more likely to conform to society''s norms. Those goals could be a legitimate job, higher education, financial stability, or a long-term relationship. When people ave little confidence in the future, they are more likely to engage in deviance.

Also, extensive involvement in legitimate activities such as having a Job, and attending and respect for authority figures restrain tendencies toward deviance. We define deviance by what social institution teach us is right and wrong. Growing up in a low income section of Brooklyn NY; my views of deviance are slightly different than many others. Many people view selling drugs as a deviant behavior but as the Notorious BIG (famous rapper) said "when I was hustling Just to make some money to feed my aughter" would you call a person deviant if they are trying to provide for their family?

In reference to murder, social institutions such as school and media taught me that killing is wrong, but significant others taught me its "killed or be killed" if someone is gunning for you, you have to gun back for them. Being in this class sociology has shown two sides of me. Although I know what the normal standard of deviance is, what I was taught in order to survive contradict social institutions. I would be a prime example to reflect the opinions of symbolic-interactionist in reference to deviance, being that is learned.

Rhetorical Devices

Student 2: Rhetorical Analysis-I , Annotated Bibliography-6, Commentary-16, Memoir-23 Student 2: Past experience Rhetorical Analysis: Walden, Where I Lived, and What I Lived For "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For" Is the second chapter from Henry D. Thoreau''s book Walden, found on pages 81-98 originally published by Princeton University Press, 1854. This edition is the 2004 reprint of the 1971 copyright with an introduction by John Updike. The critical memoir was penned in 1845 by Henry David Thoreau as an account of a two year and two month period spent in the woods living at Walden Pond near the village f Concord, Mass.

Written in observation of the times in which Thoreau lived, he masterfully describes aspects of the lives of the local villagers and the thoughts he himself has in respect to what he sees life as, and how he believes life should be. Thoreau''s stylistic use of language gives the reader a vivid account of how he sees the world progressing in the village of Concord. His observation of life and what he found to be the only necessary things which a person truly needs comes to life in his account. Thoreau makes a detailed, vivid account giving voice to a simpler life.

He ocks his contemporary''s belief in the need to possess material goods, land and wealth as a form of being. Thoreau writings in this section come to life because of his observations of the average man, or maybe more like the ideal model of a man, and what the society of his time believes should be priorities. Land ownership, if one had the resources to own land, is a point that Thoreau makes references. Ownership of material wealth is brought to light as well. His overall thinking on these issues is deliberated over throughout the text.

He goes into great detail about the things he as observed in his nearly thirty years of life. He has a very distinct opinion of the culture in which he lives and writes with a very strong opinion to the silliness in which his peers live their lives by what he would consider not really living free. He is of the mind that people are enslaved by the very things which they strive to obtain. He states in this section, "for a man is rich in proportion to the number of things in which he can afford to leave alone" (82).

This is a comment that makes reference to this mind set Thoreau has taken with him on his experiment into the woods. Thoreau''s experiment is one of living only with what he needs, and taking with him as little as possible and to acquiring the rest from nature when possible. Thoreau''s choice of a living environment and the use of his own hands to build his living quarters add to assessment of the "necessaries of life" and add value to his statements of what really should matter to men, which in this case would be true freedom to live.

Thoreau states, "l went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life. And to see if I could not learn hat it had to teach and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived" (92). Thoreau''s ability to survive by his own means is a common ability for his time. Farming as he accounts is the primary means of income for people in and around his village. He speaks of farms in which he had looked at owning and speaking with people who owned the farms at the time. He has a moment that he briefly owned one farm even though he had never actually taken possession of it.

He never had the possession of the farm as the farmer''s wife had changed her mind on leaving the property. He thought of the farm as a place in nature and not as a means to an end, this being an income in which to obtain material goods. When he speaks of his thought of obtaining a farm of his own, he states, "l knew all the while that it would yield the most abundant crop of the kind I wanted if only I could afford to leave it alone" (83). This is testament to his thoughts on this topic, that a farm was more valuable if Just left to nature freeing the farmer at the same time.

All of this points directly to Thoreau''s attitude and reason for the witting of Walden and the experiment in which he invested himself wholly. Thoreau''s relationship to the reader is one of knowing disagreement. He has been part of the world he disagrees with, being the son of a pencil maker. He attended Harvard, which was something that only people with money would have done in his time. He has even worked several occupations over the course of his life in what appears to be an internal search for what he believes and who he is as a person.

He seems to be attempting to persuade his peers that their life of possession is a waste of time. That expressing oneself to nature is a much more noble pursuit than being attached to ones belongings could ver be. He expresses this with the phrase "to affect the quality of the day is the highest of art" (90). His attempt to show his readers that life does not need to be a hurry, but should be examined at a slower pace so it can be much more appreciated is a main theme he is proposing to his readers.

Thoreau''s brings a sense of emotional relaxation to his writing as the ability to shed the unnecessary baggage in one''s life can be realized by all who read the text to some level. He allow the readers to find something in life, which they can do without in the attempt to find an inner appiness that does not require the newest goods that mankind has to offer. The peers and other member of this village are not the only ones who can benefit from Thoreau''s observations. His writing reaches farther than his local affiliates.

His words reach out to the entire nation of the time and future generations as well, whether intended or not. His orientation is one of local "roaming" and doesn''t express his thoughts farther than what he sees in his area; however, the text can be enveloped by people anywhere who can most definitely relate to the feeling of suffocation from he weight of possession and responsibility to a way of life that supports an unnecessary life style. He does however; take the stance that news is only minimally important in the aspect that once you hear something it really doesn''t matter how many times that same situation occurs.

In a sense, once a person knows something is possible, the frequency in which it occurs is unimportant. His words reach farther than maybe even Thoreau had intended them. Whether or not they could be treated as "gospel" is up to the reader and what he or she is willing to give up in order "to live ree. " Not many readers of his day would attempt such a life on purpose, and even Thoreau himself stayed near enough the village that his experiment could be aborted in the case of an extreme emergency even though he has yet to mention this outright in the text.

Thoreau states: "l was seated by the shore of a small pond, about a mile and a half from the village of Concord and somewhat higher than it". Thoreau''s language is poetic at times; although, because of the era it was written in can be hard to interpret on the first read through. A thorough reading is necessary for the his would be the passage that concludes the chapter. He observes, "My head is hands and feet. I feel all my best faculties concentrated in it.

My instinct tells me that my head is an organ for burrowing, as some creatures use their snout and fore-paws, and with it I would mine and burrow my way through these hills. I think that the richest vein is somewhere hereabouts; so by the divining rod and thin rising vapors I judge; and here I will begin to mine" (98). The passage can be confusing reading it only once; however, if the reader examines it more closely, he or she might find that it s referring to the ability of the hands and feet to do work of value, in Thoreau''s opinion, as they have done for him in his life up to this point.

However, Thoreau thinks that his head is the more valuable to him in his now settled surroundings, and is ready to start mining the thoughts that will come along with his forth coming experiences in the remote location that is now his home. The poetry that he writes the final paragraph with sets the tone for his thoughts of the moment. He appears to have an eagerness to experience all that nature has in store for him, and to not live a ruitless life. The question now is whether or not Thoreau is effectively getting his message across to the reader.

His wording very effectively sets an image of his situation in the readers mind, and his environment is painted wonderfully by the phrases and analogies that he uses to express himself. Environment is the key word as he is not Just trying to explain his surroundings, but moreover explains why he believes as he does, what is going on in his thoughts along with where he is and what is happening down to the smallest detail such as the sound of the mosquito in the orning, to the mist on the early morning pond as the sun rises.

His point of how things are and how they could or maybe even should be is put into perspective in this section of the text. Thoreau gets his point across with excellent imagery and poetry that allows the reader to be drawn into his world and live what Thoreau is living at that time. Those who read the text can start to believe the way that Thoreau is living his experiment is an acceptable reality and can easily get on board with the possibility of a simpler life. One may even enw his ability to attempt this life, as he llows the reader to imagine a life less complicated by the things that they value in their own life.

To be free to move without being tied to the comforts of life and to feel that maybe life could be comfortable in a different sense without being suffocated by material belongings. To come and go as one pleases without constraint to property in the form of land or all the other things that can fill ones home. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Yepsen, Rhodes. "Encouraging Sustainable Recycling Behavior Through Financial Incentives. " Biocycle 1 Dec. 2007: 34-7. ProQuest. 29 sep. 2008 .

The above entioned article states the progress that was made in Wilmington, Delaware toward implementing a recycling program that would increase community participation by using of a reward system along with ease of use for the citizens participating in the program. It describes the steps taken in running two separate pilot programs in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania neighborhoods to research the level citizens would take part in the program. Research was conducted in two separate income neighborhoods work to increase reusable materials along with reducing material deposited in the landfill.

The points out the thought that recycling failures are due to the investment in time needed for households to successfully increase recycling and reduce waste in landfills. The pilot programs that were implemented to test the theory that one bin used to recycle any material appropriate to be recycled would increase the participation in those communities. Along with the ease of the one bin method was the implementation of a financial incentive given by recycling firm (Blue Mountain materials recycling facility), paid as credits to local business'' for the amount in weight of the bi-weekly recycling bin picked up curbside.

The rate in which households increased their recycling efforts Jumped from 30 to 90 percent in one neighborhood and quadrupled to 90 percent as well in the second pilot neighborhood. This laid the ground work to implement the program on a city sized scale. Wilmington, DE was the city to be used to implement the large scale recycling program which would grow to 65 percent of the 73,000 population participating in the program along with over 300 retail partners and growing. This amount of recycled materials has reduced the deposits in the landfill by 35 percent (6,700 tons) every other week.

The source is a rade publication in the "green" movement and reliable to a degree, however may be slightly tainted due to putting a positive spin on any recycling effort that appears to work toward the end goal of changing recycling policy. This article is extremely useful in that it exemplifies how recycling could increase if the time needed and the financial incentive were implemented in other cities. Fargo has roughly the same population as Wilmington and the fact that the program is successful there makes it feasible to implement the same or similar program in other cities of at least the same general population.

The extreme increase in recycling due to the program leads one to believe that recycling as it is in its current state will not provide improved results toward reusing limited resources anytime soon if ever. Gamerman, Ellen. "Weekend Journal; An Inconvenient Bag. " Wall Street Journal. 26 Sept. 2008. ProQuest. 29 Sep. 2008 . This article from The Wall Street Journal is an informational piece on the new trend in "green" grocery shopping with popularity of the reusable shopping bag. The article goes on to explain the difficulty in making products environmentally safe because of the materials being used.

It also states the extent to which some retailers are planning to cut purchases of "single use" plastic bags and market reusable shopping bags for customers which will lower operating costs in the effort to transform the retail experience into a more green experience. The reputation of The Wall Street Journal and the expert reporting that has been a trusted source for national news for many years establishes this as a credible source. The reporting and facts of this article will be most useful when discussing some of the problems with the "green" movement and how good intensions can backfire if not thought through ompletely.

An example of the unintended problems with this particular effort lies in the bag which is the focus of this article. The article points to the use of the reusable grocery store to the megastore. The main statement of this article is the use of the reusable bag and that if a person doesn''t intend to use the bag, then it is better not taking the bag because it will most likely still end up in the landfill like its thinner disposable cousins, however because it uses a larger quantity of plastic, it will take much longer to biodegrade.

Other secondary points made in the article pertain to ity ordinances in places such as San Francisco, that is making an attempt to ban plastic bags altogether. This comes on the news that an estimated 100 billion plastic bags are thrown out every year in the U. S. alone. It is interesting to learn that the reusable bag is made from plastic even though the feel and look may lead a person to think otherwise. This point is important when considering grabbing several of the bags to transport purchases to and from the store and whether or not they will actually get used.

A suggestion the author submits to the reader is to return the bags o the vehicle after unloading so they will always be available and not forgotten at home. This source will be very useful in showing the extent in which certain entities, whether it be a corporation such as Wal-Mart, or a even a government such as the City of San Francisco, and how it is trying to eliminate the plastic bag issue that is becoming a much more popular issue in the quest to become more environmentally responsible. Silva, Cristina. Recycling Has a New Supporter: The Mayor: The County''s Offer of Free Recycling Proves Too Tempting For Mayor Rick Baker to Ignore. " St. Petersburg Times. 25 sept. 2008. ProQuest. 29 sept. 2008 . This article is strictly on the point of why the Mayor of St. Petersburg, FL has changed his mind on curbside recycling in the city and what the issues were that had held him back from implementing a city wide recycling program in St. Petersburg, FL. The St. Petersburg Times article seems to be a relevant and unbiased source for the article that has credible legs to it.

The article is short and to the point, but offers insight into the problems of instituting curbside recycling that many U. S. cities are currently dealing with. This articles main point is that the mayor has changes his ind toward implementing a recycling program, due to the involvement of the county and their willingness to pay for the implementation of the program that is currently on the table. The mayor had two concerns that had limited his willingness to get behind a city recycling program with the biggest issue being the cost involved with such a program.

This issue is the main point and biggest hurdle the city was dealing with to start curbside recycling for the residents. The second issue the mayor had concerns with was greenhouse emissions from collections vehicles that would be used for this service. The second point leads one to believe that the recycling service would be of great interest to the city since it appears to want to be more environmentally responsible. This article will back up the point that will be the main focus of the paper which appears to be the cost involved in starting recycling programs in cities nationwide.

This article will be useful to discuss how economic issues play the largest role in household recycling even in cities such as St. Petersburg, that are interested in McKay, Dan. "City Sees Recycling Increase: Curbside Service, Awareness Cited as Reasons. " Albuquerque Journal. 23 Sept. 2008,C. . ProQuest. 29 Sept. 2008 . The main point of this article is on recycling efforts in Albuquerque, NM that take the approach that keeping the community informed and aware of the importance of recycling at the household level.

This approach differs from other resources being used, because the approach is not one of financial incentive to motivate communities to recycle. Credibility is sound on the basis of the source being a locate newspaper. The article is not detailed in the information about how the city informs the citizens in order to get them to participate in the recycling program in certain parts of the city, owever does state that the effort is making a difference with the community.

The article goes on to mention the fact that 10,000 tons of waste are recycled annually with the program that provides recycling bins to residents to recycle materials to be picked up curbside for convenience. It is unclear if there is a current fee being charged by the city to recycle at the current rate, however, the article goes on to say that the success of the program has maxed out the current recycling facility, and increased amounts of recycling would require a garbage collection rate increase to fund a new facility.

This source is beneficial in its statements of the amount of recycling being done by a community for benefit of the environment as the only motivating factor. The Albuquerque community, if memory serves, is a very affluent, artistic and would seem to be motivated by good deed alone in my opinion. The informing and making the community aware of the benefits of recycling could take much more effort in different communities in the U. S. along with a greater financial propaganda program to make this approach successful. Bell, Tom. Westbrook to Get Free Recycling: The Deal With Casella Waste Systems Includes Extending a Sewer Line on County Road. " Portland Press Herald. 23 Sept. 2008. ProQuest. 29 Sept. 2008 . This article is focuses on how the city of Portland , ME has overcome charging recycling fees by making a deal to supply a sewer system free of charge to the Casella Waste System in exchange for free curbside recycling to the city residents for the next 20 years. The source of the article is the Portland Press Herald which has local credibility and doesn''t show any signs of bias either for or against the deal.

The estimated cost of the sewer system is $250,000 and will also be used by other landowners along the ounty road which will bring additional income to the city from this use. The waste facility is also prohibited from building an incinerator to dispose of unrecyclable materials in order to avoid greenhouse gas emissions. The city will also pay 68. 50 per ton of garbage to the facility down from 98. 50 as part of the deal. The facility will then process the recycled material and sell it to companies that make secondary recycled products for resale on a national basis.

This article is not original except in how it shows one possibility for a community to fund recycling to the citizens while keeping the process simple to participate in to ould definitely work in many communities that would like to find alternative ways to "green" up their communities, when simply taxing residents or charging fees to gain participation in recycling programs is desired. "How We Can Avoid Future Landfill Expansions. " Bucks County Courier Times. 22 Sept. 2008. ProQuest. 29 Sept. 2008 . This article shows the ways that average households can save money by reducing waste by purchasing reusable item as opposed to single use items.

The article goes on to specify other ways to reduce waste in households such as composting food waste, to finding other uses around he house for items that can''t currently be recycled. The article comes from the Buck County Courier Times located in Levittown, PA and has a focus on ways to reduce, reuse, and recycle better k now as the three R''s. The first point of the article focus on being aware of what you buy to ensure that it is something that can be recycled and choose only those items that can be recycled; if it can''t be recycled you should ask yourself it can have another long term use.

The example question the article asks is: "Can this be used for my children''s art supplies? " The second point stated in the article is that food waste takes up large mounts of the waste disposed by households and makes note that this type of material can be easily composted instead. The article is a bit vague but takes a different angle to recycling and gives would be or current recycler ideas and awareness to the issues of landfill reduction. The articles makes note that Wheelabrator, which is a local recycling processor, reuses 200 tons of recyclables on any given day to make clean, marketable secondary materials.

Abramovitz, Janet N. and Ashley T. Mattoon. "Paper Cuts: Recovering the Paper Landscape. " Worldwatch Paper 149. (Dec. 1999): 31-36. Worldwatch Paper is a espected Journal that focuses on environmental issues in many different areas. This issue is on the paper waste issue that grows exponentially annually, the resources origin, the need for sustainability, and the need to recycle or eliminate the use of paper products. The portion of this particular Journal that is the focus is on the issue of trimming consumption.

The section of the Journal on trimming paper consumption is geared toward how businesses currently use paper, and how they could drastically reduce current usage. The largest use of paper as would be expected would be the office. The areas of interest are things such as the availability of "duplex" printers, or printers with the ability to print on both sides of the paper. This is currently the most commonly used printer in the business setting today, however they are not being put to this use as many businesses don''t print on both sides of paper.

Another way to effectively cut paper usage is to print two pages per side, which is estimated to reduce paper usage by 75% in some cases. Paperless billing is now becoming more accepted nationally by the average consumer which is responsible for reduced paper consumption in the odern office. Yet another suggestion to reduce paper consumption in the modern business was to reduce the weight of the paper, in other words to use a lower grade in the same amount of space. This is a very informative and insightful topic within a Journal that can be extremely useful in other areas of paper waste and recyclability of the limited paper resource.

There are many ideas on how to reduce, reuse, and recycle paper that is backed up with solid research to solidify the facts and ideas put forth. Porter, Richard C. The Economics of Waste. Resources for the Future, 2002. This book as written with the purpose of examining the economics behind recycling everything that can be recycled along with scientific data focused on why recycling works when it does, and why recycling doesn''t work when issues such a government regulations, lack of public interest, or financial lose due to inefficient recycling processes take place for example.

This very in depth book is a systematic examination of different aspects of the recycling industry. It puts many areas of the industry under the microscope and examines the instability of recycling and why it is hard to get a large scale recycling peration going, due to financial losses experienced in many cases. The issues that are prevalent are the disposable nature of most things consumed in the modern era. Nothing seems to be made to last or made to be reused.

Economics success of the modern corporations is based on consumption and economic growth cannot happen without continued consumption, which translates into the need for disposable materials to be used to make our products. This is contributing to large quantities of waste going into landfills, and the inability of recycling facilities to make an economic rofit means that they are of no need in our society. The reason that these facilities can''t succeed stems from a number of reasons, with the most obvious being that people Just don''t seem to care about recycling.

It may not be that people don''t care as much as they don''t feel it is convenient to recycle and requires either too much effort, time, or cost to the consumer, all of which gives zero incentive to recycle and care for the environment that still hasn''t been embraced by a significant enough of the population to have much of an effect. This book has a very logical and mathematical approach to the issues with ffective recycling, and financial gains that will make recycling an industry that will become common place in modern society.

The author has stated clearly that financial incentive will be need on the part of the consumer to recycle, along with financial incentive for companies to make long lasting products, and finally financial incentive to build recycling facilities that can turn a profit. The entire book will be extremely useful in backing up many ideas and concepts that are the norm in todays recycling efforts with detailed mathematical formulas for proof.

This book will be used in its ntirety to back up recycling facts used in writing the recycling commentary. Lave, Lester B. et al. "Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Issues. " Journal of Environmental Engineering (Oct 1999): 944-48. EBSCO: Academic Search Elite. 14 Oct. The Journal entry is a valid study of economics and recycling policy in the U. S. and the ability of recycling to be a self sustained industry and why it currently is not so. a mathematical approach to its successes and failures.

The Journal of Environmental Engineering is a credible resource available to researchers of with a need for information on engineering responsibly for the future. This particular Journal entry covers several angles of recycling and the reasons why it is not a profitable or highly sought after industry, and why the recycling industry is a long way from being one that will be heavily invested in anytime in the foreseeable future, however two stand out as being the biggest hurdles in the capitalistic environment of profit and loses.

The first of these two is the fact that the disposal of waste into a landfill is still the most affordable way to rid ourselves of the things we no longer find useful. The second main point is that it is still cheaper to obtain the esources from the original source than it is to get them from recycling in almost every case with the exception of aluminum and steel.

Keeping this in mind it is understandable the aluminum can recycling is one of the most common forms of fore putting waste in the landfill recycling and has been in practice for the longest period of time. Automobile recycling has also been around for some time and accounts for a large portion of the resources needed to provide new steel products to consumers, even though less and less steel is being used to manufacture goods of any kind today. Eighty percent of the products made from steel in the U. S. today come from recycled steel.

The statement made in this Journal do not leave the reader feeling encouraged about recycling efforts increasing to a larger degree in the near future because it Just can''t make money until natural resources dwindle to the point that they become more expensive to get them from their natural source than from recycling. The recycling effort in a state like North Dakota is not going to increase because population is so minimal compared to other regions that it will be far in the future due to the inexpensive use of land for landfills that this state has plenty of.

Isely, Paul and Aaron Lowen. Price and Substitution in Residential Solid Waste. " contemporary Economic policy 25. 3 (2007): 433-43. EBSCO: Academic search Elite. 14 oct. 2008 . The Journal entry is based in the economics of a variety of waste disposal and is a reliable source for the costs involved in waste disposal and the costs involved by making mathematical calculations to disposal of different types without stating which combination is the best. Simply stated the money involved in waste disposal of various types is the only focus of this article.

The information in this resource is directed at landfill costs and how much money er ton the case study landfill charges per ton of waste, how much additional tonnage can be disposed of and the increased amount of waste an increase in fees can accommodate for future needs. The costs for landfill disposal are broken down into the smallest conceivable variable from fuel charges for pickup vehicles to labor involved in employing workers at every stage of disposal.

The breakdown and formulas used to fgure the cost of disposal are explained so that any future changes in costs such as increased expense of things such as fuel for example can be fgured The information is useful in breaking down the costs involved with waste disposal and the degree of exactness the study was conducted is amazing. Waste disposal was researched for several years and measure the weight of disposal in tons and even took into account seasonal changes in temperature and moister from precipitation that could be absorbed into waste before the weight was taken before disposal.

It appears that no detail was overlooked in this particular study and should come in handy when straight forward hard facts are need to backup points on amounts of actual waste being disposed of compared to amounts recycled. COMMENTARY Household Recycling: Examples of How to Successfully Reduce Landfill Disposal By now most people are aware that paper, plastic, aluminum, and glass are everyday materials that play a part in almost everything Americans consume.

Whether it is as common as the aluminum can that contains a popular soda, to the plastic water bottles that line the coolers of every convenience store; and these items are piling up in our landfills, all the while more, unsustainable, raw materials are being depleted to make their replacements. If asked, most people would say that they would like to be more eco-friendly; have a smaller environmental footprint; or in ther words, be kind to the earth we all share. What better way to do your part than recycling?

You may not save the world from environmental disaster, but it is a start. Most people are familiar with the three arrows that form a flowing, and never ending triangle; this is the symbol for recycling, or a product that is recyclable, will have the symbol located on it. Unfortunately, most products that have this symbol stamped on the bottom, or printed on its side, still end up as waste in the landfill, or city dump. Most people, for certain reasons and sometimes for no reason at all, don''t give recycling much thought.

These reasons take a variety of forms; some people feel they don''t have the time recycle, others extra space for recyclables, and even more don''t want to foot the extra cost of recycling. However, some cities are addressing these issues; and in doing so, are finding success in recycling programs that take many different forms, and have been developed through innovative thinking, and accomplishing the ultimate goal of reducing garbage in the landfill. The first topic of that arises when discussing recycling, is that of the time and inconvenience people often associate with the whole process. Imagine that the local